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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 001-38532
i3 Verticals, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
82-4052852
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
40 Burton Hills Blvd., Suite 415
Nashville, TN
37215
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (615) 465-4487
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 Par ValueIIIVNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None    
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  o No  x    
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x  No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  x  No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes   No  ☒
As of March 31, 2022, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the Class A common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $610.6 million based on the number of shares of Class A common stock held by non-affiliates and the closing price of the Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date. The determination of affiliate status for purposes of the foregoing calculation is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purpose.
As of November 17, 2022, there were 22,999,150 outstanding shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,118,142 outstanding shares of Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



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NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes statements that express our opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this report may be forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “pro forma,” “continues,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “seeks,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will,” “would” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology.
By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including, without limitation, the length and severity of its impact;
our indebtedness and our ability to maintain compliance with the financial covenants in our Senior Secured Credit Facility (as defined below);
our ability to meet our liquidity needs;
our ability to raise additional funds on terms acceptable to us, if at all, whether through debt, equity or a combination thereof;
the triggering of impairment testing of our fair-valued assets, including goodwill and intangible assets, in the event of a decline in the price of our Class A common stock or otherwise;
our ability to generate revenues sufficient to maintain profitability and positive cash flow;
competition in our industry and our ability to compete effectively;
consolidation in the banking and financial services industry;
risk of shortages, price increases, changes, delays or discontinuations of hardware due to supply chain disruptions with respect to our limited number of suppliers;
our dependence on non-exclusive distribution partners to market our products and services;
our ability to keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry and provide new products and services;
liability and reputation damage from unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services;
technical, operational and regulatory risks related to our information technology systems and third-party providers’ systems;
reliance on third parties for significant services;
exposure to economic conditions and political risks affecting consumer and commercial spending, including the use of credit cards;
our ability to increase our existing vertical markets, expand into new vertical markets and execute our growth strategy;
our ability to protect our systems and data from continually evolving cybersecurity risks or other technological risks, including the impact of any cybersecurity incidents or security breaches;
our ability to successfully identify acquisition targets, complete those acquisitions and effectively integrate those acquisitions into our services;
potential degradation of the quality of our products, services and support;
our ability to retain customers;
our ability to successfully manage our intellectual property;
our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop key personnel and qualified employees;
risks related to laws, regulations and industry standards;
risk of significant chargeback liability if our customers refuse or cannot reimburse chargebacks resolved in favor of their customers;
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our ability to comply with complex laws and regulations applicable to the healthcare industry and to adjust our operations in response to changing laws and regulations;
the impact of government investigations, claims and litigation;
the effects of health reform initiatives;
operating and financial restrictions imposed by our Senior Secured Credit Facility (as defined below);
risks related to the accounting method for i3 Verticals, LLC's 1.0% Exchangeable Notes due February 15, 2025 (the “Exchangeable Notes”);
our ability to raise the funds necessary to settle exchanges of the Exchangeable Notes or to repurchase the Exchangeable Notes upon a fundamental change;
risks related to the conditional exchange feature of the Exchangeable Notes; and
the risk factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Although we base these forward-looking statements on assumptions that we believe are reasonable when made, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry developments may differ materially from statements made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The matters summarized in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in subsequent filings could cause our actual results to differ significantly from those contained in our forward-looking statements. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry developments are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this filing, those results or developments may not be indicative of results or developments in subsequent periods.
In light of these risks and uncertainties, we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement that we make in this filing speaks only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or to publicly announce the results of any revision to any of those statements to reflect future events or developments, except as required by applicable law. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data.

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “i3 Verticals,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” and similar references refer (1) before the completion of our initial public offering (IPO) completed in June 2018 or the reorganization transactions entered into in connection therewith (the “Reorganization Transactions”), which are described in the notes to consolidated financial statements, to i3 Verticals, LLC and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries, and (2) after the Reorganization Transactions to i3 Verticals, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.

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RISK FACTORS SUMMARY

Our business faces significant risks and uncertainties. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. You should carefully review and consider the full discussion of our risk factors in the section titled “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Set forth below is a summary list of the principal risk factors as of the date of the filing this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
The COVID-19 pandemic is significantly affecting our operations, business and financial condition, and our liquidity could also be negatively impacted, particularly if the U.S. economy remains unstable for a significant amount of time.
We have a history of operating losses and will need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow and continue our acquisition program.
The payment processing industry is highly competitive. Such competition could adversely affect the fees we receive, and as a result, our margins, business, financial condition and results of operations.
To acquire and retain customers, we depend in part on distribution partners that generally do not serve us exclusively, may not aggressively market our products and services, are subject to attrition and are not under our control.
If we cannot keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry, the use of our products and services could decline, causing a reduction in our revenues.
Unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services could expose us to liability, protracted and costly litigation and damage our reputation.
If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of the Visa and Mastercard payment networks, those payment networks could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations through our bank sponsors.
If our bank sponsorships are terminated and we are not able to secure or successfully migrate customer portfolios to new bank sponsors, we will not be able to conduct our business.
Consolidation in the banking and financial services industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We have faced, and may in the future face, significant chargeback liability if our customers refuse or cannot reimburse chargebacks resolved in favor of their customers, and we may not accurately anticipate these liabilities.
On occasion, we experience increases in interchange and sponsorship fees; if we cannot pass these increases along to our customers, our profit margins will be reduced.
Third-party hardware that we sell to our customers is generally procured from a limited number of suppliers. Thus, we are at risk of shortages, price increases, changes, delays or discontinuations of hardware, which could disrupt our business.
Our systems and our third-party providers’ systems may fail, or our third-party providers may discontinue providing their services or technology generally or to us specifically, which in either case could interrupt our business, cause us to lose business and increase our costs.
We are subject to economic and political risk, the business cycles of our customers and distribution partners and changes in the overall level of consumer and commercial spending, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A decline in the use of cards and ACH as payment mechanisms for consumers and businesses or adverse developments in the electronic payment industry in general could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may not be able to successfully execute our strategy of growth through acquisitions.
Revenues and profits generated via acquisition may be less than anticipated, the integration process could experience delays or difficulties, and we may fail to uncover all liabilities of acquisition targets through the due diligence process prior to an acquisition, resulting in unanticipated costs, losses or a decline in profits, as well as potential impairment charges.
Changes in tax laws or their interpretations, or becoming subject to additional U.S., state or local taxes that cannot be passed through to our customers, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property.
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If we lose key personnel, or if their reputations are damaged, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, and proprietary information of our company could be shared with our competitors.
In a dynamic industry like ours, our success and growth depend on our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees.
Our operating results and operating metrics are subject to seasonality and volatility, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and operating results or in perceptions of our business prospects.
We are a decentralized company, which presents certain risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting a key business unit than we would in a more centralized environment, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, which could negatively affect our financial condition and operating results.
Our international operations subject us to additional risks which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We are subject to extensive government regulation, and any new laws and regulations, industry standards or revisions made to existing laws, regulations or industry standards affecting the electronic payments industry, and the other industries in which we provide services, or our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations, may have an unfavorable impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changing laws and governmental rules and regulations designed to protect or limit access to or use of personal information could adversely affect our ability to effectively provide our products and services, and actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal and regulatory obligations may negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers in our Healthcare vertical, harm our reputation and subject us to substantial civil and criminal penalties.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and competitive position.
We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle exchanges of the Exchangeable Notes or to repurchase the Exchangeable Notes upon a fundamental change.
The conditional exchange feature of the Exchangeable Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.



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PART I

Item 1. Business
Our Company
i3 Verticals builds, acquires and grows software solutions in strategic vertical markets. Our broad array of specialized solutions meet our customers’ specific enterprise needs which leads to long-term partnerships. Our payments platform seamlessly integrates into our solutions, unlocking additional value.

Revenue from software and related services accounts for 49% of our total revenue in the twelve months ended September 30, 2022, up from 5% in the twelve months ended September 30, 2017.

Since founding in 2012, we have steadily increased our market share and solution breadth through a combination of organic growth initiatives and acquisitions. Our compounding cash flow generation has positioned us to capitalize on strategic opportunities and position ourselves to expand our product offerings for years to come.

We focus on strategic vertical markets where we can build lasting customer relationships. Our primary markets are underserved, fragmented, large, and growing. Our primary strategic vertical markets include:
Public Sector—We have products and solutions that create an efficient flow of information throughout a variety of public sector entities, including states and local governments. Our solutions help our customers provide more responsive and efficient services to their citizens. We have products that enable upper and lower court case management, collections, finance and accounting, motor vehicle and carrier registration, e-filing and taxation, license plate inventory, property tax management, utility billing, professional licensing, document workflow, and law enforcement software. We deliver integrated payments solutions throughout many of these products and these solutions allow our customers to efficiently process court, tax, registration, utility and other payments. We also assist public schools in completing payment processing functions such as accepting payments for school lunches (online or at school) and school activities.
Healthcare—We provide businesses in our Healthcare vertical with software platforms for revenue cycle management, including coding, insurance adjudication, billing, scheduling and integrated payments. Our solutions help our customers efficiently code and bill for their services, and ultimately receive reimbursement. We offer our software as a service and bundle it with professional services that specialize in outsourced revenue cycle management. We also offer electronic health records ("EHR") solutions and often pair these with our revenue cycle management services. Our payment solutions in the healthcare market seamlessly integrate into our own proprietary software, as well as that of our distribution partners, consisting of independent software vendors (“ISVs”). We also provide workflow software and associated professional services to medical insurance payers.
A core component of our growth strategy includes a disciplined approach to acquisitions of companies and technology, evidenced by more than 47 acquisitions since our inception in 2012. Our acquisitions have opened new strategic vertical markets, increased the number of businesses and organizations to whom we provide solutions and extended our existing software solutions and capabilities. We target vertical markets where businesses and organizations often lack integrated payment functionality within their business management systems. When we present software solutions that integrate the customer's operations with their payments, we can build a long-term relationship primed to grow together. Our management team has significant experience acquiring and integrating vertical market software businesses that complement our existing suite of products and solutions. Due to our team’s longstanding relationships and domain expertise, we maintain a strong pipeline of acquisition targets and are constantly evaluating businesses against our acquisition criteria.
We generate revenue from software licenses and subscriptions, ongoing support, and other software-related solutions. We also generate revenue from volume-based fees generated by payment processing services provided to customers throughout North America. Our software and integrated payment solutions coupled with our distribution network derive significant scale from operating efficiencies, which enables us to generate strong operating margins and cash flows.
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Our Segments
We have two reportable segments, Merchant Services and Software and Services (formerly known as Proprietary Software and Payments), and an Other category. For additional information on our segments, see Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Merchant Services
Our Merchant Services segment provides comprehensive payment solutions to businesses and organizations. Our Merchant Services segment includes third-party integrated payment solutions as well as traditional merchant processing services across our strategic vertical markets.
Software and Services
Our Software and Services segment delivers vertical market software solutions to customers across all of our strategic vertical markets. These solutions often include embedded payments or other recurring services.
Other
Our Other category includes corporate overhead expenses, when presenting reportable segment information.
Our Products and Solutions
We deliver a comprehensive array of vertical market software solutions and integrated payment technology to our customers and distribution partners. Our products and solutions are strategically aligned to support new customer growth and promote customer retention. Some solutions are broadly applicable across many different types of entities and departments, while others are specific to certain markets.
Public Sector
Our Public Sector vertical is comprised of more than 100 unique software products designed to make governments run more efficiently. Payments are often embedded into these software products, providing customers with a seamless experience as well as an additional revenue stream. We serve customers at both the state and local level and our geographic reach covers most of the United States and some of Canada.
Our software products are designed to align with the specific needs of our customers and their communities. Solutions categories include:
Judiciary & Courts - Fully integrated digital solutions offering dynamic processes to plan, coordinate, evaluate, record, and provide up to date information within court systems.
Motor Vehicle - Comprehensive solutions for commercial and passenger vehicle management for motor vehicle administrations.
Utility Billing - Complete suite of billing and back-office management software solutions and services to enhance enterprise applications, improve customer experience, and increase efficiency of utility operations.
Digital Customer Engagement - Digital customer engagement platform, including web, mobile, chat, and voice options, enables intuitive self-service options for customers to manage their data & accounts.
Finance and ERP - Enterprise resource planning (ERP) solutions connect the organization and its data to create a flow of information providing insight across multiple departments.
School Lunches - Comprehensive solution for schools and districts including meal account management, point of sale, menu planning, nutritional analysis, food inventory and free and reduced meal applications.
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Land & Records Management - Fully digital solutions to boost proficiency and maintain records to enable submission of index information, scanning of document images and secure instantaneous retrieval of information.
Public Safety - Solutions for computer aided dispatch, law records management, evidence management, jail management, mobile solutions, and livescan.
Licensing & Permitting - Automation for every step of the licensing application, renewal process and payment process. These include workflow and user driven customization solutions.
Property, Recording and Tax – Digital solutions designed for appraisal information, tax collection management, revenue collection, and Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal.
Healthcare
Our Healthcare vertical brings revenue cycle management services and EHR solutions together to address customer needs in one of the most complicated sectors of the economy. Our software solutions often accompany seamlessly integrated services such as medical coding, integrated payments or value based care optimization.
Our customers include large university medical centers as well as small private practice offices. Solution categories include:
Revenue Cycle Management Software and Services – Comprehensive revenue cycle management services for academic institutions and practices of all sizes.
Medical Billing Software – Software to add efficiencies to the billing process and improve accuracy, workflows and claims processing.
Practice Management Software – Full-featured medical software to help clients run their practices.
Electronic Health Records – Full-featured EHR system to streamline clinical operations and drive patient engagement.
Healthcare Payer Solutions – Content services platform that helps drive accelerated performance and innovation in many departments, including Appeals & Grievances, Network Operations, Member Services, Compliance, Back Office and IT.
Administrative Solutions – Content services platform for Accounting and Finance, Contract Management and Human Resources.
Payment Technology
In addition to our broad suite of vertical market software described above, we have developed a suite of payment technology solutions that serves customers across our vertical markets. Capabilities include:
traditional merchant processing or payment facilitator models,
integration with customer business management systems, risk management,
validated point-to-point encryption, and
PCI-compliant security and extensive reporting tools.

We offer our customers a single point of access through our powerful, simple and capable proprietary core platform. From there we offer a suite of payment and software solutions, enabling omni-channel POS, spanning brick and mortar locations and electronic- and mobile-commerce, including app-based payments.
Our payment technology platforms include an Application Programming Interface (“API”) suite that provides access to traditional merchant processing, ACH processing and payment facilitator merchant processing capabilities. The platform APIs allow access to Europay, Mastercard and Visa (“EMV”) devices using an
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implementation that shields software providers from the requirements of PCI or payment application data security standard certifications.
Our Technology
Our technology offerings are architected and delivered utilizing a variety of strategies designed to maximize business value for customers. Software is delivered via agile development methodologies allowing for immediate customer feedback. Our cloud-first strategy takes advantage of cost-effective, secure, and scalable infrastructures. We focus intently on cybersecurity and we proactively work to continuously improve the security of customer information and our internal systems. We leverage test automation and automated deployment tools to ensure seamless, high quality software deployments.
Agile Development
Our software development lifecycle has been designed to incorporate agile methodologies that are intended to maximize business value to our customers as well as create an environment for continuous feedback. This feedback is rapidly incorporated into our product backlogs and prioritized for development. Quality assurance is incorporated into the process from the beginning, allowing for high quality technology delivery.
Cloud First Strategy
We have both public cloud and private cloud solutions. Our primary public cloud provider is AWS. However, we also leverage Microsoft and Google to deliver our technology across multiple cloud platforms. Our strategy is focused on leveraging Platforms as a Service whenever possible to ensure the highest level of scalability at a lower cost level. In situations where the public cloud is not a fit, we have a private cloud solution to host our technology. The public cloud spans multiple data centers across the country. Within each data center, we have implemented a highly available infrastructure utilizing a variety of cybersecurity tools to ensure systems are always on and highly secured.
Low code
We have recently identified low code partner. We intend to deploy this leading-edge technology to efficiently build critical technology for customers at a lower cost and at a more rapid pace.
Automation
We are investing heavily in technology automation. This allows us to bring changes to the marketplace much faster than traditional mechanisms. Additionally, we continue to invest in test automation, which reduces the risk of quality issues while improving overall test coverage. These two technologies help enable the delivery of new technology with high levels of quality.
Our Sales and Marketing
Our sales strategy includes both direct W2 sales representatives and a broad network of distribution partners.
We utilize our direct sales team, our largest channel, to sell our proprietary software and payment technology solutions directly to customers in our vertical markets. Sales teams are organized and coordinated by vertical, leading to extensive cross-selling opportunities across our broad array of solutions. Leveraging our vertically focused suite of products and services, we are able to maximize the performance of our direct W2 sales force, and our external distribution channels, as we continue to attract new partners.
Our external channel partners are comprised of ISVs, value-added resellers (“VARs”) and a few select independent sales organizations (“ISOs”). These distribution partners are a consistent and scalable source for new customer acquisition.
Our product and partner marketing is delivered through a shared-services model which is coordinated with each business unit. Marketing is tightly aligned with our sales efforts by providing event coordination, demand generation resources, physical and electronic marketing campaigns and partner marketing collateral. Our enterprise marketing function establishes our overall corporate marketing strategy to enhance brand awareness and demand generation. We use a broad variety of traditional and digital marketing mediums to engage prospective customers.
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Our Operations
Our operations team is uniquely structured to optimize the experience of our customers and distribution partners. These vertically focused business support teams allow us to establish a level of expertise that delivers a scalable support structure and enables us to align our services with the economic goals and specific expectations of the respective business unit. Each operations team is positioned to support the functions of their respective customer base and key performance indicators mark their progress toward achieving the goals established by each business unit. A strong network of shared services, such as marketing, legal, finance and HR, support our decentralized operating units and ensure that they are focused on the best in-class service to our customers. Our corporate technology department is structured to rapidly enhance and effectively maintain our products and services.

Our operations team is structured to effectively support the individual needs of our customers. This support includes:
customer onboarding and data conversions;
software configurations and integrations;
customer support and retention;
customer training and activations;
billing and financial review;
credit underwriting and risk management;
payment processing support; and
end-user customer support.
Our technical operations team oversees the execution of development, quality control, delivery and support for our vertical software and payment processing applications. Applications are developed and tested according to the software development lifecycle, composed of iterative development and testing with a dedicated focus on planning and execution. Releases are modeled on continuous deployment and added to the live environment on a routine basis. Each application stack is built with redundancy to foster resiliency and built to be easily managed during a disaster recovery scenario. The entire solution is hosted within a managed, dedicated environment that is certified PCI-compliant to protect all personal and transactional data.
Our Competition
We compete with a variety of vertical market software providers that have different business models, go-to-market strategies and technical capabilities. We believe the most significant competitive factors in our markets are:

1.quality, including the ability of our products and solutions to addresses the specific needs of our customers;
2.service, including our ability to bring value-added solutions and strong customer support;
3.trust, including a strong reputation for quality service and trusted distribution partners;
4.convenience, such as speed in customer onboarding and approving applications;
5.pricing, including fees charged to customers and residuals and incentives offered to distribution partners.
Our competitors range from large and well established companies to smaller, earlier-stage businesses. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry— The vertical market software and payment processing industries are highly competitive. Such competition could adversely affect the revenue we receive, and as a result, our margins, business, financial condition and results of operations.” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Human Capital
To facilitate talent attraction and retention, we strive to make i3 Verticals a safe and healthy workplace, with opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by competitive compensation and benefits programs and opportunities for advancement.
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The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people. Accordingly, we provide our eligible employees with access to flexible and convenient medical programs intended to meet their needs and the needs of their families. In addition to standard medical coverage, for our domestic employees, we offer dental and vision coverage, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, flexible work schedules on a case-by-case basis, employee assistance programs, voluntary short term and long-term disability insurance and term life insurance. For our non-U.S. employees, in addition to standard medical coverage, we offer benefits that are consistent with local practices for similarly situated companies.

We provide competitive compensation and benefits programs to help meet the needs of our employees. In addition to salaries, these programs (which vary across our businesses) include bonus opportunities and, for our domestic employees, a 401(k) Plan. We use targeted stock option grants and restricted stock units ("RSUs") with vesting conditions to facilitate retention of personnel, and we are proud that a large percentage of our workforce owns i3 Verticals shares, RSUs or options to purchase i3 Verticals shares. We believe this dynamic aligns important economic incentives and encourages an entrepreneurial spirit.
We have built a collaborative culture that recognizes and rewards innovation and offers employees a variety of opportunities and experiences. We believe that our culture is critical to our success. The majority of our employees work on-site in one of our over 40 offices; however, we encourage our employees to take advantage of our flexible work arrangements to meet their individual circumstances. We are an acquisitive company and regularly add new employees and locations as a result of our acquisition activity. Our employee headcount has significantly increased since our Initial Public Offering in June 2018, and as of November 17, 2022, we have approximately 1,637 employees in 43 states and two countries. We believe that our employee retention rates are competitive and we think this is a result of strong emphasis on workforce culture in our acquisition process and in our operational decision making.
Government Regulation
We operate in an increasingly complex legal and regulatory environment. Our business and the products and services that we offer are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations and the rules and standards of the payment networks that we utilize to provide our electronic payment services, as more fully described below.
Dodd-Frank Act
The 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") and the related rules and regulations have resulted in significant changes to the regulation of the financial services industry. Changes impacting the electronic payment industry include providing merchants with the ability to set minimum dollar amounts for the acceptance of credit cards and to offer discounts or incentives to entice consumers to pay with cash, checks, debit cards or credit cards, as the merchant prefers. New rules also contain certain prohibitions on payment network exclusivity and merchant routing restrictions of debit card transactions. Additionally, the Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Act provides that the interchange fees that certain issuers charge merchants for debit transactions will be regulated by the Federal Reserve and must be “reasonable and proportional” to the cost incurred by the issuer in authorizing, clearing and settling the transactions. Rules released by the Federal Reserve in July 2011 to implement the Durbin Amendment mandate a cap on debit transaction interchange fees for issuers with assets of $10 billion or greater.
The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), which has assumed responsibility for most federal consumer protection laws, and the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which has the authority to determine whether any non-bank financial company, such as us, should be supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System because it is systemically important to the U.S. financial system. Any new rules or regulations implemented by the CFPB or the Financial Stability Oversight Council or in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act that are applicable to us, or any changes that are adverse to us resulting from litigation brought by third parties challenging such rules and regulations, could increase our cost of doing business or limit permissible activities.
Privacy and Information Security Regulations
We provide services that are subject to privacy laws and regulations of a variety of jurisdictions. Relevant federal privacy laws include the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which applies directly to a broad range of
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financial institutions and indirectly, or in some instances directly, to companies that provide services to financial institutions. These laws and regulations restrict the collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, require notice to individuals of privacy practices and provide individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of certain nonpublic or otherwise legally protected information. These laws also impose requirements for safeguarding and proper destruction of personal information through the issuance of data security standards or guidelines. Our business also may be subject to the Fair Credit Reporting Act and the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003, which regulate the use and reporting of consumer credit information and impose disclosure requirements on entities who take adverse action based on information obtained from credit reporting agencies. All fifty states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands have enacted data breach notification laws requiring businesses that experience a security breach of their computer databases that contain personal information to notify affected individuals, consumer reporting agencies and governmental agencies. In addition, there are state laws that restrict the ability to collect and utilize certain types of personal information, such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers, and impose secure disposal requirements for personal data. Certain state laws mandate businesses to implement reasonable data security measures. Massachusetts requires any business that processes the personal information of a Massachusetts resident to adopt and implement a written information security program. States are increasingly legislating data protection requirements for a broader list of personal data and are strengthening protections for students' personal information. For example, Illinois regulates the collection of biometric information under its Biometric Information Privacy Act, and at least five other states have legislation pending regarding the collection of biometric data. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”), which went into effect on January 1, 2020, requires companies that process personal information of California residents to make certain disclosures to consumers about data practices, grants consumers specific access rights to their data, allows consumers to opt out of certain data sharing activities and creates a private right of action for data breaches. The California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (the “CPRA”), which will come into effect on January 1, 2023, but applies to certain personal information collected on or after January 1, 2022, amends and expands the CCPA to create additional consumer privacy rights, such as the right of correction and right to limit the use of sensitive personal information, and establishes a privacy enforcement agency known as the California Privacy Protection Agency (the “CPPA”). In addition, various states, including Colorado, Virginia, Utah, and Connecticut, have enacted, and other states are expected to enact in the near future, new laws and regulations concerning privacy, data protection and information security. To the extent we are subject to such legislation, the potential effects on our business are often far-reaching and may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. The recently enacted laws often provide for civil penalties or fines for violations. Each privacy law and regulation that applies to us could increase our cost of doing business or limit permissible activities. We are also subject to numerous federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of health information. See “—Healthcare Regulatory Matters” below.

As an entity that provides services to educational institutions, we are indirectly subject to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (“FERPA”) and the privacy requirements of the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (“PPRA”), and we may not transfer or otherwise disclose or use any personally identifiable information from a student record to another party other than on a basis and in a manner permitted under the statutes. See “Risk Factors—If we violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (“FERPA”) and the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (“PPRA”), it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers in our Education vertical and could harm our reputation. Further, if we disclose student information in violation of FERPA or PPRA, our access to student information could be suspended.
Healthcare Regulatory Matters
Our Healthcare vertical business provides services to healthcare providers who are highly regulated and subject to frequently changing political, legislative, regulatory and other influences. Although some regulatory requirements do not directly apply to our operations, these requirements affect the business of our healthcare customers and the demand for our services.
Failure to satisfy those legal and regulatory requirements, or the adoption of new laws or regulations, could have a significant negative impact on our Healthcare vertical operations and financial condition. U.S. federal, state, local laws and regulations are evolving and can be subject to significant change.
In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations are often uncertain. These laws are enforced by federal, state and local regulatory agencies in the jurisdictions where we operate, and in some instances also through private civil litigation.
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Examples of the most significant of these laws include, but are not limited to, the following:
HIPAA Privacy and Security Requirements
There are numerous federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of health information. In particular, regulations promulgated pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) establish privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of certain individually identifiable health information (known as “protected health information”) and require covered entities, including health plans and most healthcare providers, to implement administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic protected health information. In addition, the HIPAA administrative simplification provisions require the use of uniform electronic data transmission standards of healthcare claims and payment transactions submitted or received electronically.
Certain provisions of the security and privacy regulations promulgated pursuant to HIPAA apply to business associates (entities that handle protected health information on behalf of covered entities), and business associates are subject to direct liability for violation of these provisions. As a provider of services to entities subject to HIPAA, we are a “business associate” of our customers and must safeguard the protected health information we handle. To the extent permitted by applicable regulations and contracts and associated business associate agreements with our customers, we are permitted to use and disclose protected health information to perform our services and for other limited purposes, but other uses and disclosures, such as marketing communications, require written authorization from the patient or must meet an exception specified under the privacy regulations. Violations of the HIPAA privacy and security regulations may result in substantial civil monetary penalties and, in certain circumstances, criminal penalties. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) enforces the privacy and security regulations, and state attorneys general may also enforce the regulations in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. To the extent we are permitted under our customer contracts, we may de-identify protected health information and use de-identified information for our purposes without obtaining patient authorization or further complying with HIPAA. Determining whether protected health information has been sufficiently de-identified to comply with the HIPAA privacy standards and our contractual obligations may require complex factual and statistical analyses. Any failure by us to meet HIPAA requirements with respect to de-identification could subject us to penalties and harm our reputation.
Other Privacy and Security Requirements
In addition to HIPAA, numerous other U.S. federal and state laws govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to and confidentiality of personal information. In many cases, state laws are more restrictive than, and not preempted by, HIPAA, and may allow personal rights of action with respect to privacy or security breaches, as well as fines. State laws are contributing to increased enforcement activity and are subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities. Further, a number of states have introduced or passed legislation relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data. Congress is also currently considering a comprehensive national data privacy and security law that may be broader than or supplant state consumer privacy laws.
Data Protection and Breaches
Most states require holders of personal information to maintain safeguards, and all states have laws that require such holders to take certain actions in response to a data breach, such as providing prompt notification of the breach to affected individuals or the state’s attorney general. In some states, these laws are limited to electronic data, but states increasingly are enacting or considering stricter and broader requirements. The laws are inconsistent across states, which can increase the costs of compliance. Additionally, HIPAA imposes certain notification requirements on business associates. In certain circumstances involving large breaches, media notice is required. A non-permitted use or disclosure of protected health information is presumed to be a breach under HIPAA unless the business associate or covered entity establishes that there is a low probability the information has been compromised consistent with the risk assessment requirements enumerated under HIPAA.
In addition, the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") uses its consumer protection authority to initiate enforcement actions in response to data breaches. The FTC has prosecuted certain data breach cases as unfair and deceptive acts or practices under the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, the FTC regulations require creditors, which may include some of our customers, to implement identity theft prevention programs to detect,
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prevent and mitigate identity theft in connection with customer accounts. Although Congress passed legislation that restricts the definition of “creditor” and exempts many healthcare providers from complying with this identity theft prevention rule, we may be required to apply additional resources to our existing processes to assist our affected customers in complying with this rule.
Information Blocking and Interoperability Requirements
Government initiatives promoting interoperability of electronic health information ("EHI") have driven increasing demand among customers, industry groups, and patients for health information technology ("HIT") products that are compatible with one another and capable of facilitating access, exchange, and use of EHI without delay or other interference. For example, the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology ("ONC") and HHS published a final rule in 2020, implementing provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act ("The Cures Act"), that prohibits health care providers, health information exchanges ("HIEs"), and HIT developers from information blocking (“Information Blocking Final Rule”). As an electronic medical record provider, one of our subsidiaries is considered to be a HIT developer and is, therefore, subject to the Information Blocking Final Rule.

Information Blocking is defined under the Cures Act as a practice that is likely to interfere with, prevent or materially discourage access, exchange or use of EHI. The Information Blocking Final Rule outlines the kinds of industry behaviors that constitute information blocking, along with certain exceptions for practices that would not be considered information blocking. HIT developers are subject to a higher standard than health care providers in terms of determining whether a practice constitutes information blocking, in that an action that the HIT developer knows or should know is likely to interfere with, prevent, or materially discourage access, exchange, or use of EHI may be considered information blocking. Additionally, HIT developers are subject to penalties for information blocking of up to $1 million per violation. The Information Blocking Final Rule applied to HIT developers with at least one HIT tool that is ONC Certified HIT and we have at least one product - iMed EMR - that is ONC Certified HIT.

In 2020, ONC published a final rule that imposes HIT technology standards, implementation specifications, certification criteria, and conditions and maintenance of certification requirements that apply to HIT developers (“HIT Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule”). The HIT Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule includes new criteria related to EHI export and standardized APIs for patient services. As a result of this rule, HIT developers of certified HIT need to ensure that their products and services meet the requisite technical standards by the relevant deadlines, which roll out through 2024, and that their HIT continues to evolve as developers and other stakeholders release revised versions of these standards. In addition, to participate in the ONC Health IT Certification Program, HIT developers must make various certifications regarding their HIT, and attest to compliance with applicable conditions of certification, including those related to information blocking.

In 2020, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ("CMS") published the Interoperability and Patient Access Final Rule, which, among other things, requires hospitals with certain EHR capabilities to send admission, discharge, and transfer notifications to other providers, and imposes requirements on certain payors to support Patient Access and Provider Directory APIs. While not directly applicable to HIT developers, the Interoperability and Patient Access Final Rule further demonstrates the government’s drive toward interoperability of EHI and the resulting need of healthcare providers and other consumers of HIT for tools that meet these requirements.

In January of 2022, ONC published the Trusted Exchange Framework, Common Agreement - Version 1 ("TEFCA"), and Qualified Health Information Network ("QHIN") Technical Framework - Version 1. The overall goal of the TEFCA is to establish a universal floor for interoperability across the country. The TEFCA will establish the infrastructure model and governing approach for users in different networks to securely share basic clinical information with each other—all under commonly agreed-to expectations and rules, agnostic to the network in which they participate. The Trusted Exchange Framework describes a common set of non-binding, foundational principles for trust policies and practices that can help facilitate exchange among HINs. Although implementation of the Trusted Exchange Framework is not mandatory, the federal government encourages its adoption through the establishment of a publicly available directory of networks that are capable of trusted exchange and by permitting federal agencies to require implementation of the Trusted Exchange Framework by network contractors as the contractors update their health IT or operational practices.
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Anti-Kickback Laws
A number of federal and state laws govern patient referrals, financial relationships with physicians and other referral sources and inducements to providers and patients, including restrictions contained in amendments to the Social Security Act, commonly known as the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (“AKS”). The AKS prohibits any person or entity from offering, paying, soliciting or receiving, directly or indirectly, anything of value with the intent of generating referrals of items or services covered by Medicare, Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs. Courts have interpreted the law broadly and held that there is violation of the statute if any one of the purposes of an arrangement is to encourage patient referrals or other federal healthcare program business, regardless of whether there are other legitimate purposes for the arrangement. Actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it is not required to commit a violation. Violation of the AKS is a felony, and penalties for AKS violations can be severe, and include imprisonment, criminal fines, civil penalties with treble damages and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. In addition, submission of a claim or services or items generated in violation of the AKS may be subject to additional penalties under the federal False Claims Act ("FCA").
The AKS contains a limited number of exceptions, and the Office of the Inspector General (“OIG”) of HHS has created regulatory safe harbors to the AKS. Activities that comply with a safe harbor are deemed protected from prosecution under the AKS. Failure to meet a safe harbor does not automatically render an arrangement illegal under the AKS. The arrangement, however, does risk increased scrutiny by government enforcement authorities, based on our particular facts and circumstances. Our contracts and other arrangements may not meet an exception or a safe harbor. Additionally, many states have similar anti-kickback laws or laws that otherwise prohibit fraudulent or abusive arrangements within the healthcare industry. These laws are often broad in scope and may apply regardless of the source of payment for care.
Although we believe that our relationships with referral sources and recipients have been structured to comply with current law and available interpretations, we cannot provide assurance that regulatory authorities enforcing these laws will determine these financial arrangements comply with the AKS or other applicable laws.
False or Fraudulent Claim Laws; Medical Billing and Coding
Medical billing, coding and collection activities are governed by numerous federal and state civil and criminal laws, regulations, and sub-regulatory guidance. We provide billing and coding services, claims processing and other solutions to providers that relate to, or directly involve, the reimbursement of health services covered by Medicare, Medicaid, other federal and state healthcare programs and private payers. These services may be subject us to, or we may be contractually required to comply with, numerous federal and state laws that prohibit false or fraudulent claims including but not limited to the FCA, the federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law ("CMP Law"), and state equivalents. We rely on our customers to provide us with accurate and complete information and to appropriately use the solutions we provide to them, but they may not always do so.
The FCA prohibits the knowing submission of false claims or statements to the federal government, including to the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The FCA defines the term “knowingly” broadly to include not only actual knowledge of a claim’s falsity, but also reckless disregard of the truth of the information, or deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of a claim. Specific intent to defraud is not required. The FCA may be enforced by the federal government directly or by a qui tam plaintiff, or whistleblower, on the government's behalf. The government may use the FCA to prosecute Medicare and other government program fraud in areas such as coding errors and billing for services not rendered. Further, submission of a claim for an item or service generated in violation of the AKS constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA. When an entity is determined to have violated the FCA, it may be required to pay three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus substantial civil penalties for each false claim, and may be excluded from participation in federal healthcare programs.
Exclusion from Participation in Government Healthcare Programs
The OIG is required to or may choose to exclude individuals and entities involved in misconduct related to federal healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, from participation in those programs. Federal law prohibits federal healthcare programs from paying for items or services furnished, ordered, or prescribed by an individual or entity excluded from participation. The prohibition against federal program payment extends to payment for administrative and management services not directly related to patient care. Civil penalties may be imposed against providers and entities that employ or enter into contracts with excluded individuals or entities to provide items or services to federal healthcare program beneficiaries and submit a claim for reimbursement to a
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federal healthcare program, or cause such a claim to be submitted. In addition to civil monetary penalties, violations may result in exclusion and treble damages, for each item or service furnished during the period in which the individual or entity was excluded. Our customers have an affirmative duty to check the exclusion status of individuals and entities prior to entering into contractual relationships and periodically re-check thereafter. We have implemented compliance policies and procedures to screen for excluded individuals. However, if we are found to have employed or contracted with an excluded individual or entity, we could face significant consequences as outlined above. In addition, we could be liable under our customer contracts if we are excluded by the OIG or employ or contract with an excluded individual or entity.
Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Regulation
Our business is subject to U.S. federal anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, which we refer to collectively as the “BSA.” The BSA, among other things, requires money services businesses to develop and implement risk-based anti-money laundering programs, report large cash transactions and suspicious activity and maintain transaction records. We are also subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) that prohibit or restrict transactions to or from (or transactions dealing with) specified countries, their governments and, in certain circumstances, their nationals, such as those who might be narcotics traffickers and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Similar anti-money laundering, counter terrorist financing and proceeds of crime laws apply to movements of currency and payments through electronic transactions and to dealings with persons specified on lists maintained by organizations similar to OFAC in several other countries and which may impose specific data retention obligations or prohibitions on intermediaries in the payment process. We have developed and continue to enhance compliance programs and policies to monitor and address related legal and regulatory requirements and developments.
Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices
We and many of our customers are subject to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In addition, laws prohibiting these activities and other laws, rules and or regulations, including the Telemarketing Sales Act, may directly impact the activities of certain of our customers, and in some cases may subject us, as the customer’s payment processor or provider of certain services, to investigations, fees, fines and disgorgement of funds if we are deemed to have aided and abetted or otherwise provided the means and instrumentalities to facilitate the illegal or improper activities of the customer through our services. Various federal and state regulatory enforcement agencies, including the Federal Trade Commission and the states attorneys general, have authority to take action against non-banks that engage in unfair or deceptive acts or practices or violate other laws, rules and regulations and to the extent we are processing payments or providing services for a customer that may be in violation of laws, rules and regulations, we may be subject to enforcement actions and as a result may incur losses and liabilities that may impact our business.
In addition, the CFPB has recently attempted to extend certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that prevent the employment of unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”) to payment processors. Though there is still litigation involving whether payment processing companies are subject to these requirements (and the extent of their application), these requirements may apply or be applicable in the future. UDAAPs could involve omissions or misrepresentations of important information to consumers or practices that take advantage of vulnerable consumers, such as elderly or low-income consumers.
Stored Value Services
Stored value cards, store gift cards and electronic gift certificates are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations, which may include laws and regulations related to consumer and data protection, licensing, consumer disclosures, escheat, anti-money laundering, banking, trade practices and competition and wage and employment. The customers who utilize the gift card processing products and services that we may sell may be subject to these laws and regulations. In the future, if we seek to expand these stored value card products and services, or as a result of regulatory changes, we may be subject to additional regulation and may be required to obtain additional licenses and registrations which we may not be able to obtain.
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The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (the “Card Act”) created new requirements applicable to general-use prepaid gift cards, store gift cards and electronic gift certificates. The Card Act, along with the Federal Reserve’s amended Regulation E, created new requirements with respect to these cards and electronic certificates. These include certain prohibited features and revised disclosure obligations. Prepaid services may also be subject to the rules and regulations of Visa, Mastercard, Discover and American Express and other payment networks with which our customers and the card issuers do business. The customers who utilize the gift card processing products and services that we may sell are responsible for compliance with all applicable rules and requirements relating to their gift product program.
Additionally, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“FinCEN”), issued a final rule in July 2011 regarding the applicability of the BSA’s regulations to “prepaid access” products and services. This rulemaking clarifies the anti-money laundering obligations for entities engaged in the provision and sale of prepaid services, such as prepaid gift cards. We are not registered with FinCEN based on our determination that our current products and services do not constitute a “prepaid program” as defined in the BSA and we are not a “provider” of prepaid access. We may in the future need to register with FinCEN as a “money services business-provider of prepaid access” in accordance with the rule based on changes to our products or services.
Indirect Regulatory Requirements
Certain of our distribution partners are financial institutions that are directly subject to various regulations and compliance obligations issued by the CFPB, the Federal Reserve System, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration and other agencies responsible for regulating financial institutions, which includes state financial institution regulators. While these regulatory requirements and compliance obligations do not apply directly to us, many of these requirements materially affect the services we provide to our customers and us overall. The financial institution regulators have imposed requirements on regulated financial institutions to manage their third-party service providers. Among other things, these requirements include performing appropriate due diligence when selecting third-party service providers; evaluating the risk management, information security, and information management systems of third-party service providers; imposing contractual protections in agreements with third-party service providers (such as performance measures, audit and remediation rights, indemnification, compliance requirements, confidentiality and information security obligations, insurance requirements, and limits on liability); and conducting ongoing monitoring, diligence and audits of the performance of third-party service providers. Accommodating these requirements applicable to our customers imposes additional costs and risks in connection with our financial institution relationships. We expect to expend significant resources on an ongoing basis in an effort to assist our customers in meeting their legal requirements.
Payment Network Rules and Standards
Payment networks establish their own rules and standards that allocate liabilities and responsibilities among the payment networks and their participants. These rules and standards, including the PCI DSS, govern a variety of areas of the payments industry, including how we can process transactions, how consumers and customers may use their cards, how our customers may conduct their business regarding the acceptance of payments (including the types and amounts of fees that can be assessed for the acceptance of payments), the security features of cards, security standards for processing, data security and allocation of liability for certain acts or omissions including liability in the event of a data breach. The payment networks may change these rules and standards from time to time as they may determine in their sole discretion and with or without advance notice to their participants. These changes may be made for any number of reasons, including as a result of changes in the regulatory environment, to maintain or attract new participants, or to serve the strategic initiatives of the networks and may impose additional costs and expenses on or be disadvantageous to certain participants. Changes to these rules and standards could alter or prohibit certain current industry business practices which could impact our ability to provide services to various market segments we service. Participants are subject to audit by the payment networks to ensure compliance with applicable rules and standards. The networks may fine, penalize or suspend the registration of participants for certain acts or omissions or the failure of the participants to comply with applicable rules and standards.
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An example of a such a standard is the “chip and pin” or “chip and signature” card requirement, known as EMV, which was mandated by Visa, Mastercard, American Express and Discover to be supported by payment processors by April 2013 and by merchants by October 2015. This mandate set new requirements and technical standards, including requiring integrated point of sale systems to be capable of accepting the more secure “chip” cards that utilize the EMV standard and setting new rules for data handling and security. Processors and customers that do not comply with the mandate or do not use systems that are EMV compliant risk fines and liability for fraud-related losses. We have invested significant resources to ensure our systems’ compliance with the mandate, and to assist our customers in becoming compliant.
To provide our electronic payment services, we must be registered either indirectly or directly as a service provider with each of the payment networks that we utilize. Because we are not a bank, we are not eligible for primary membership in certain payment networks, including Visa and Mastercard, and are therefore unable to directly access these networks. The operating regulations of certain payment networks, including Visa and Mastercard, require us to be sponsored by a member bank as a service provider. We are registered with certain payment networks, including Visa and Mastercard, through various sponsor banks. The agreements with our bank sponsors give them substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices including our solicitation, application and qualification procedures for customers and the terms of our agreements with customers. We are also subject to network operating rules and guidelines promulgated by the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”) relating to payment transactions we process using the ACH Network. Like the card networks, NACHA may update its operating rules and guidelines at any time and we will be subject to these changes. For example, NACHA's WEB Debit Account Validation Rule, took effect March 19, 2021. This rule requires changes to ACH validation of bank accounts associated with internet WEB ACH payments. The NACHA Operating Rules and Guidelines allocate responsibility and liabilities to the various participants in the payment network, including us and our partner financial institutions. Recently, NACHA has focused upon data security and privacy responsibilities. We are subject to audit by our partner financial institutions for compliance with the rules and guidelines. Our sponsor financial institutions have substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including the terms of our agreements with our ACH processing customers.
Money Transmitter Regulation
We are subject to various U.S. federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations governing money transmission and the issuance and sale of payment instruments, including some of the prepaid products we may sell.
In the United States, most states license money transmitters and issuers of payment instruments. These states not only regulate and control money transmitters, but they also license entities engaged in the transmission of funds. Many states exercise authority over the operations of our services related to money transmission and payment instruments and, as part of this authority, subject us to periodic examinations. Many states require, among other things, that proceeds from money transmission activity and payment instrument sales be invested in high-quality marketable securities before the settlement of the transactions or otherwise restrict the use and safekeeping of such funds. Such licensing laws also may cover matters such as regulatory approval of consumer forms, consumer disclosures and the filing of periodic reports by the licensee and require the licensee to demonstrate and maintain specified levels of net worth. Many states also require money transmitters, issuers of payment instruments, and their agents to comply with federal and/or state anti-money laundering laws and regulations.
Other Regulation
We are subject to U.S. federal and state unclaimed or abandoned property (escheat) laws which require us to turn over to certain government authorities the property of others we hold that has been unclaimed for a specified period of time such as account balances that are due to a distribution partner or customer following discontinuation of its relationship with us. The Housing Assistance Tax Act of 2008 requires certain merchant acquiring entities and third-party settlement organizations to provide information returns for each calendar year with respect to payments made in settlement of electronic payment transactions and third-party payment network transactions occurring in that calendar year. Reportable transactions are also subject to backup withholding requirements.
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The foregoing is not an exhaustive list of the laws and regulations to which we are subject and the regulatory framework governing our business is changing continuously. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.    
Our Intellectual Property
Certain of our products and services are based on proprietary software and related payment systems solutions. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws, as well as employee and third-party non-disclosure, confidentiality, and contractual arrangements to establish, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights in our technology, including with respect to our proprietary rights related to our products and services. In addition, we license technology from third parties that is integrated into some of our solutions.
We own a number of registered federal service marks, including, without limitation, i3 Verticals®, PaySchools® and Axia®. We also own a number of domain names, including, without limitation, www.i3verticals.com.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and file or furnish reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website at www.i3verticals.com, through which you may access these materials free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information contained on our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the inclusion of our website address in this report is an inactive textual reference only.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business faces significant risks and uncertainties. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The following risk factors, some of which contain statements that constitute forward-looking statements, should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The COVID-19 pandemic has and may in the future affect our operations, business and financial condition, and our liquidity could also be negatively impacted, particularly if the U.S. economy remains unstable for a significant amount of time.
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 as a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread and unpredictable impacts on global society, economies, financial markets, and business practices, and may in the future impact our business operations, including our employees, customers, partners, and communities. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the extent to which COVID-19 will continue to spread, the emergence of new variants of COVID-19, the development, availability, distribution and effectiveness of vaccines and treatments, and public confidence in such vaccines and treatments, and the extent and duration of measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and business and government shutdowns. Refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion regarding the impact of COVID-19 on our financial results for fiscal year 2022. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business going forward will depend on numerous evolving factors we cannot reliably predict.
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There are no reliable estimates of how long the pandemic will last, how many people are likely to be affected by it or the duration or types of restrictions (such as schools or business closings) that will be imposed. While the COVID-19 pandemic is having an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, the extent of such impact will depend on future developments, which cannot be accurately predicted at this time. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in and may continue to result in lower results of operations due to a number of operational factors, including:
the temporary closures, re-closures and failures of our customers; which creates risk of chargeback liability and delayed payment or failure to pay by our customers for our solutions and services
third-party disruptions, including potential outages at network providers, call centers and other suppliers;
increased cyber and payment fraud risk related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as cybercriminals attempt to profit from the disruption, given increased online banking, e-commerce and other online activity; and
challenges to the availability and reliability of our solutions and services due to changes to operations, including the possibility of COVID-19 cases occurring at our locations, affecting our employees or affecting the systems or employees of our customers or other third parties on which we depend.
Since the outbreak, the market price per share of our common stock has been volatile. If general economic conditions were to deteriorate or remain uncertain for an extended period of time, our liquidity and ability to repay our outstanding debt may be harmed and the trading price of our common stock could decline. If the stock price were to decrease significantly, it may cause a triggering event for impairment testing of fair-valued assets, including goodwill and intangible assets. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has previously caused disruption in the financial markets and the businesses of financial institutions and may do so again, potentially causing a slowdown in the decision-making of these institutions. This may affect the timing on which we may obtain any additional funding and there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional funds, in the form of debt or equity, or to amend our Senior Secured Credit Facility on terms acceptable to us, if at all, even if we determined such actions were necessary in the future.
The foregoing and other continued disruptions to our business as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could result in a material adverse effect on our business, result of operations, financial condition, cash flows and our ability to service our indebtedness. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic could heighten the risks in certain of the other risk factors described herein.
We have a history of operating losses and will need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow and continue our acquisition program.
Since inception in 2012, we have been engaged in growth activities and have made a significant number of acquisitions that have grown our business. This acquisition activity requires substantial capital and other expenditures. As a result, 2017 was the first fiscal year for which we attained profitability, and we incurred net losses attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc. in the years ended September 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, and we may incur losses again in the future. A substantial portion of our historical revenue growth has resulted from acquisitions. For the year ended September 30, 2022, revenues attributable to the acquisitions we completed in 2021 and 2022 were $61.8 million, or 19.5% of our total revenues. We expect our cash needs to increase significantly for the next several years as we:
make additional acquisitions;
market our products and services;
expand our customer support and service operations;
hire additional marketing, customer support and administrative personnel; and
implement new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls.
As a result of these continuing costs and expenses, we need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow. To date, our operations have been supported by equity and debt financings. If we do not continue to increase our revenues, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
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The vertical market software and payment processing industries are highly competitive. Such competition could adversely affect the revenue we receive, and as a result, our margins, business, financial condition and results of operations.
The market for payment processing services is highly competitive and has relatively low barriers to entry. Other providers of payment processing services have established a sizable market share in the merchant acquiring sector and service more customers than we do. Our growth will depend, in part, on a combination of the continued growth of the electronic payment market and our ability to increase our market share.
Our payment and software solutions compete against many peers. Our competitors include, among others, Tyler Technologies, Inc., EverCommerce, Inc., EngageSmart, LLC, GTY Technology Holdings, Inc., Constellation Software, Inc., Global Payments, Inc., Stripe, Inc., and Square, Inc.
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technological, and marketing resources than we have. Accordingly, if these competitors specifically target our business model, they may be able to offer more attractive solutions to our customers and more attractive compensation to our distribution partners. They also may be able to offer and provide products and services that we do not offer. Additionally, larger financial institutions may decide to perform in-house some or all of the services we provide or could provide, which may give them with a competitive advantage in the market. There are also a large number of small providers of vertical market software services or payment processing services that provide various ranges of services to our customers and our potential customers. This competition may effectively limit the prices we can charge and requires us to control costs aggressively in order to maintain acceptable profit margins. Competition could also result in a loss of existing distribution partners and customers and greater difficulty attracting new distribution partners and customers. One or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we are also subject to risks as a result of changes in business habits of our vendors and customers as they adjust to the competitive marketplace. Because our standing arrangements and agreements with our vendors and customers typically contain no purchase or sale obligations and are terminable by either party upon no or relatively short notice, we are subject to significant risks associated with the loss or change at any time in the business habits and financial condition of key vendors as they adapt to changes in the market.
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To acquire and retain customers, we depend in part on distribution partners that generally do not serve us exclusively, may not aggressively market our products and services, are subject to attrition and are not under our control.
We rely heavily on the efforts of our distribution partners to market our products and services to existing customers and potential customers. Generally, our agreements with distribution partners are not exclusive and these partners retain the right to refer potential customers to other merchant acquirers. Gaining and maintaining loyalty or exclusivity may require financial concessions to maintain current distribution partners or to attract potential distribution partners from our competitors who may be offering significantly more enticing pricing terms, such as increased signing bonuses or residuals payable to our referral partners, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations. If these distribution partners switch to another merchant acquirer, focus more heavily on promoting the products and services of one or more other merchant acquirers, cease operations or become insolvent, we may no longer receive new referrals from them or may receive fewer new referrals from them, and we also risk losing existing customers with whom the distribution partner has a relationship. Additionally, some of our distribution partners are subject to the requirements imposed by our bank sponsors, which may result in fines to them for non-compliance and may, in some cases, result in these entities ceasing to market our products and services. If we are unable to maintain our existing base of distribution partners or develop relationships with new distribution partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Further, we may be named in legal proceedings in connection with the actions of our distribution partners where it is alleged that our distribution partners have intentionally or negligently misrepresented pricing or other contractual terms to customers or potential customers related to our processing solutions or related products. Our distribution partners are independent businesses and we have no control over their day-to-day business activities, including their customer marketing and solicitation practices. While in some cases we may have indemnification rights against our distribution partners for these activities, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully enforce those indemnification rights or that our distribution partners are adequately capitalized in a manner necessary to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us. If one or more judgments or settlements in any litigation or other investigation, plus related defense and investigation costs, significantly exceed our insurance coverage and we are unable to enforce our indemnification rights against a distribution partner or partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could materially suffer.
If we cannot keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry, the use of our products and services could decline, causing a reduction in our revenues.
The electronic payments market is subject to constant and significant changes. This market is characterized by rapid technological evolution, new product and service introductions, evolving industry standards, changing customer needs and the entrance of non-traditional competitors, including products and services that enable card networks and banks to transact with consumers directly. To remain competitive, we continually pursue initiatives to develop new products and services to compete with these new market entrants. These projects carry risks, such as cost overruns, delays in delivery, performance problems and lack of customer acceptance. In addition, new products and offerings may not perform as intended or generate the business or revenue growth expected. Additionally, we look for acquisition opportunities, investments and alliance relationships with other businesses that will increase our market penetration and enhance our technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities. Any delay in the delivery of new products and services or the failure to differentiate our products and services or to accurately predict and address market demand could render our products and services less desirable, or even obsolete, to our customers and to our distribution partners. Furthermore, even though the market for integrated payment processing products and services is evolving, it may develop too rapidly or not rapidly enough for us to recover the costs we have incurred in developing new products and services targeted at this market. Any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
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The continued growth and development of our payment processing activities will depend on our ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in consumer behavior. For example, consumer behavior may change regarding the use of payment card transactions, including the relative increased use of cash, crypto-currencies, other emerging or alternative payment methods and payment card systems that we or our processing partners do not adequately support or that do not provide adequate commissions to parties like us. Any failure to timely integrate emerging payment methods into our software, to anticipate consumer behavior changes or to contract with processing partners that support such emerging payment technologies could cause us to lose traction among our customers or referral sources, resulting in a corresponding loss of revenue, if those methods become popular among end-users of their services.
The products and services we deliver are designed to process complex transactions and provide reports and other information on those transactions, all at very high volumes and processing speeds. Our technology offerings must also integrate with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. Any failure to deliver an effective, reliable and secure service or any performance issue that arises with a new product or service could result in significant processing or reporting errors or other losses. If we do not deliver a promised new product or service to our customers or distribution partners in a timely manner or the product or service does not perform as anticipated, our development efforts could result in increased costs and a loss in business that could reduce our earnings and cause a loss of revenue. We also rely in part on third parties, including some of our competitors and potential competitors, for the development of and access to new technologies, including software and hardware. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to develop or adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. If we are unable to develop, adapt to or access technological changes or evolving industry standards on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
Unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services could expose us to liability, protracted and costly litigation and damage our reputation.
We are responsible both for our own business and to a significant degree for acts and omissions by certain of our distribution partners and third-party vendors under the rules and regulations established by the payment networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, Discover and American Express, and the debit networks. We and other third parties collect, process, store and transmit sensitive data, such as names, addresses, social security numbers, credit or debit card numbers and expiration dates, drivers’ license numbers and bank account numbers, and we have ultimate liability to the payment networks and member financial institutions that register us with the payment networks for our failure, or the failure of certain distribution partners and third parties with whom we contract, to protect this data in accordance with payment network requirements. The loss, destruction or unauthorized modification of customer or cardholder data could result in significant fines, sanctions and proceedings or actions against us by the payment networks, governmental bodies, consumers or others, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such sanction, fine, proceeding or action could damage our reputation, force us to incur significant expenses in defense of these proceedings, disrupt our operations, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business and may result in the imposition of monetary liability.
We could be subject to breaches of security by hackers or other unauthorized persons. For example, on June 2, 2021, the State of Louisiana, Division of Administration (the “State”) and a putative class of Louisiana law enforcement districts filed a petition in the 19th Judicial District Court for the Parish of East Baton Rouge against i3-Software & Services, LLC (“S&S”), a subsidiary of the Company located in Shreveport, Louisiana, seeking monetary damages related to a third-party remote access software product used in connection with services provided by S&S to certain Louisiana Parish law enforcement districts and alleged inadequacies in the Company’s cybersecurity practices. For additional information about this litigation, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements.
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Although we proactively employ multiple measures to defend our systems against intrusions and attacks and to protect the data we collect, our measures may not prevent unauthorized access or use of sensitive data. Recently, several municipalities have been the victims of cyberattacks, and in some cases, ransomware, through which an attacker gains access to the organization’s computer files, renders them temporarily inaccessible and threatens to permanently delete them if a cash ransom is not paid by a specified deadline. While we or, to our knowledge, our distribution partners, third-party vendors or customers have not been subject to a material ransomware or cyber-extortion attack impacting us, if such an event were to occur it could significantly disrupt our operations, expose us to liability under HIPAA and/or state data breach laws, adversely impact our reputation, impact our customer relationships or subject us to material losses or liability. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in our efforts to modify or enhance our protective measures against evolving threats. A breach of our system or a third-party system upon which we rely may subject us to material losses or liability, including payment network fines, assessments and claims for unauthorized purchases with misappropriated credit, debit or card information, impersonation or other similar fraud claims. A misuse of such data or a cybersecurity breach could harm our reputation and deter our customers and potential customers from using electronic payments generally and our products and services specifically, thus reducing our revenue. In addition, any such misuse or breach could cause us to incur costs to correct the breaches or failures, expose us to uninsured liability, expose us to liability under HIPAA, increase our risk of regulatory scrutiny, subject us to lawsuits and result in the imposition of material penalties and fines under state and federal laws or by the payment networks. While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. A significant cybersecurity breach could also result in payment networks prohibiting us from processing transactions on their networks or the loss of our financial institution sponsorship that facilitates our participation in the payment networks, either of which could materially impede our ability to conduct business.
Although we generally require that our agreements with our distribution partners and service providers who have access to customer data include confidentiality obligations that restrict these parties from using or disclosing any customer data except as necessary to perform their services under the applicable agreements, there can be no assurance that these contractual measures will prevent the unauthorized disclosure of business or customer data, nor can we be sure that such third parties would be willing or able to satisfy liabilities arising from their breach of these agreements. Any failure by such third parties to adequately take these protective measures could result in protracted or costly litigation.
In addition, our agreements with our bank sponsors (as well as payment network requirements) require us to take certain protective measures to ensure the confidentiality of business and consumer data. Any failure to adequately comply with these protective measures could result in fees, penalties, litigation or termination of our bank sponsor agreements.
Any significant unauthorized disclosure of sensitive data entrusted to us would cause significant damage to our reputation, impair our ability to attract new integrated technology and distribution partners and may cause parties with whom we already have such agreements to terminate them.
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If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of the Visa and Mastercard payment networks, those payment networks could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations through our bank sponsors.
We do not directly access the payment card networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, that enable our acceptance of credit cards and debit cards, including some types of prepaid cards. Accordingly, we must rely on banks or other payment processors to process transactions and must pay fees for the services. To provide our merchant acquiring services, we are registered through our bank sponsors with the Visa and Mastercard networks as service providers for member institutions. The majority of our $22.6 billion in payment volume in fiscal year 2022 was attributable to transactions processed on the Visa and Mastercard networks. As such, we, our bank sponsors and many of our customers are subject to complex and evolving payment network rules. The payment networks routinely update and modify requirements applicable to merchant acquirers, including rules regulating data integrity, third-party relationships (such as those with respect to bank sponsors and ISOs), merchant chargeback standards and PCI DSS. The rules of the card networks are set by their boards, which may be influenced by card issuers, some of which offer competing transaction processing services. The PCI council released version 4.0, which includes stronger standards that increase the compliance burden on processors and require additional training, education and support tools for processors to support their merchants.
If we or our bank sponsors fail to comply with the applicable rules and requirements of the Visa or Mastercard payment networks, Visa or Mastercard could suspend or terminate our member registration or certification, which would make it impossible for us to conduct our business on its current scale. Further, our transaction processing capabilities, including with respect to settlement processes, could be delayed or otherwise disrupted, and recurring non-compliance could result in the payment networks seeking to fine us. In addition, card networks and their member financial institutions regularly update, and generally expand, security expectations and requirements related to the security of cardholder data and environment. Under certain circumstances, we are required to report incidents to the card networks within a specified time frame.
We may also be subject to penalties from the payment card networks if we fail to detect that our customers are engaging in activities that are illegal, contrary to the payment card network operating rules, or considered “high-risk.” We must either prevent high-risk merchants from using our products and services or register such merchants with the payment card networks and conduct additional monitoring with respect to such merchants. Such penalties could be material and could result in termination of registration or could require changes in our process for registering new customers. This could materially and adversely affect our business.
Under certain circumstances specified in the payment network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments or other assessments of our compliance with the PCI DSS. Such activities may reveal that we have failed to comply with the PCI DSS. In addition, even if we comply with the PCI DSS, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach. The termination of our registration with the payment networks, or any changes in payment network or issuer rules that limit our ability to provide merchant acquiring services, could have an adverse effect on our payment processing volumes, revenues and operating costs. If we are unable to comply with the requirements applicable to our settlement activities, the payment networks may no longer allow us to provide these services, which would require us to spend additional resources to obtain settlement services from a third-party provider. In addition, if we were precluded from processing Visa and Mastercard electronic payments, we would lose substantially all of our revenues.
We are also subject to the operating rules of NACHA, a self-regulatory organization which administers and facilitates private-sector operating rules for ACH payments and defines the roles and responsibilities of financial institutions and other ACH network participants. The NACHA Rules and Operating Guidelines impose obligations on us and our partner financial institutions. These obligations include audit and oversight by the financial institutions and the imposition of mandatory corrective action, including termination, for serious violations. If an audit or self-assessment under PCI DSS or NACHA identifies any deficiencies that we need to remediate, the remediation efforts may distract our management team and be expensive and time consuming.
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If our bank sponsorships are terminated and we are not able to secure or successfully migrate customer portfolios to new bank sponsors, we will not be able to conduct our business.
If the banks that sponsor us with the Visa and Mastercard networks stop sponsoring us, we would need to find other financial institutions to provide those services, which could be difficult and expensive. If we were unable to find a replacement financial institution to provide sponsorship, we could no longer provide processing services to affected customers, which would negatively impact our revenues and earnings. Furthermore, some agreements with our bank sponsors give them substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including our solicitation, application and qualification procedures for customers and the terms of our agreements with customers. Our bank sponsors’ discretionary actions under these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Consolidation in the banking and financial services industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Consolidations have been, and continue to be, active in the banking and financial services industry. It is possible that larger financial institutions that result from consolidations will have increased bargaining power when negotiating, which could result in less favorable contractual terms for us. Larger financial institutions resulting from consolidations may also decide to perform in-house some or all of the services we provide or could provide. These foregoing matters could have an adverse effect on our business, result of operations and financial condition.

We have faced, and may in the future face, significant chargeback liability if our customers refuse or cannot reimburse chargebacks resolved in favor of their customers, and we may not accurately anticipate these liabilities.
We have potential liability for chargebacks associated with our customers’ processing transactions. In most circumstances, if a billing dispute between a customer and a cardholder is not ultimately resolved in favor of our customer, the disputed transaction is “charged back” to the customer’s bank and credited to the account of the cardholder. Anytime our customer is unable to satisfy a chargeback, we are responsible for that chargeback.
If we are unable to collect the chargeback from the customer’s account or reserve account (if applicable), or if the customer refuses or is financially unable due to bankruptcy or other reasons to reimburse us for the chargeback, we bear the loss for the amount of the refund paid to the cardholder’s bank. While we did not incur material chargeback losses in our 2022 or 2021 fiscal years, any increase in chargebacks not paid by our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are potentially liable for losses caused by fraudulent card transactions. Card fraud occurs when a customer’s customer uses a stolen or counterfeit credit, debit or prepaid card, card number or other credentials to purchase merchandise or services. In a traditional card-present transaction, if the customer swipes the card, receives authorization for the transaction from the card issuing bank and verifies the signature on the back of the card against the paper receipt signed by the customer, the card issuing bank remains liable for any loss. In a fraudulent card-not-present transaction, even if the customer receives authorization for the transaction, the customer is liable for any loss arising from the transaction. Many of our smaller customers transact a substantial percentage of their sales over the Internet or in response to telephone or mail orders. Because their sales are card-not-present transactions, these customers are more vulnerable to customer fraud than larger customers. We may experience chargebacks arising from cardholder fraud more frequently than providers of payment processing services that service larger businesses and organizations.
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Business fraud occurs when a business or organization, rather than a cardholder, knowingly uses a stolen or counterfeit card or card number to record a false sales transaction, or intentionally fails to deliver the merchandise or services sold in an otherwise valid transaction. Business fraud also occurs when employees of businesses change the business demand deposit accounts to their personal bank account numbers, so that payments are improperly credited to the employee’s personal account. We have established systems and procedures to detect and reduce the impact of business fraud, but there can be no assurance that these measures are or will be effective. Incidents of fraud could increase in the future. Failure to effectively manage risk and prevent fraud could increase our chargeback liability and other liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
New Visa rules associated with chargeback are now in effect that tighten monitoring and control of risks to combat the high rates of fraud and disputes. These new rules impact when merchants are enrolled in the Visa Fraud Monitoring Program (the “VFMP”) and the Visa Chargeback Monitoring Program (the “VCMP”). The VFMP and the VCMP target merchants with higher levels of chargebacks and fraud. Visa's new rules could have serious implications for the types of businesses that we can support, and high-risk merchants will be impacted by the changes.
On occasion, we experience increases in interchange and sponsorship fees; if we cannot pass these increases along to our customers, our profit margins will be reduced.
We pay interchange fees or assessments to issuing banks through the card associations for each transaction that is processed using their credit and debit cards. From time to time, the card associations increase the interchange fees that they charge processors and the sponsoring banks. At their sole discretion, our sponsoring banks have the right to pass any increases in interchange fees on to us. In addition, our sponsoring banks may seek to increase their sponsorship fees charged to us, all of which are based upon the dollar amount of the payment transactions we process. If we are not able to pass these fee increases along to customers through corresponding increases in our processing fees, our profit margins will be reduced.
Third-party hardware that we sell to our customers is generally procured from a limited number of suppliers. Thus, we are at risk of shortages, price increases, changes, delays or discontinuations of hardware, which could disrupt our business.
Many of our solutions require or benefit from the use of third-party hardware products that we sell to our customers, such as payment terminals and point of sale equipment. A number of such products come from limited number of suppliers. Due to our reliance on the products produced by a limited number of suppliers, we are subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in the supply of certain products. Additionally, various sources of supply-chain risk, including strikes or shutdowns at delivery ports or loss of or damage to our products while they are in transit or storage, intellectual property theft, losses due to tampering, issues with quality or sourcing control, failure by our suppliers to comply with applicable laws and regulation, potential tariffs or other trade restrictions, or other similar problems could limit or delay the supply of our products or harm our reputation. In the event of a shortage or supply interruption from suppliers, we may not be able to develop alternate sources quickly, cost-effectively, or at all. Any interruption or delay in manufacturing supply, any increases in costs, or the inability to obtain these products from alternate sources at acceptable prices and within a reasonable amount of time, could harm our ability to provide products to our customers.
Our systems and our third-party providers’ systems may fail, or our third-party providers may discontinue providing their services or technology generally or to us specifically, which in either case could interrupt our business, cause us to lose business and increase our costs.
We rely on third parties for specific services, software and hardware used in providing our products and services. Some of these organizations and service providers are our competitors or provide similar services and technology to our competitors, and we may not have long-term contracts with them. If these contracts are canceled or we are unable to renew them on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be adversely impacted. The termination by our service or technology providers of their arrangements with us or their failure to perform their services efficiently and effectively may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and, if we cannot find alternate providers quickly, may cause those customers to terminate their processing agreements with us.
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We also rely in part on third parties for the development and access to new technologies, or for updates to existing products and services for which they provide ongoing support. Failure by these third-party providers to devote an appropriate level of attention to our products and services could result in delays in introducing new products or services, or delays in resolving any issues with existing products or services for which third-party providers provide ongoing support.
Our systems and operations or those of our third-party technology vendors could be exposed to damage or interruption from, among other things, fire, natural disaster, power loss, telecommunications failure, unauthorized entry, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, acts of terrorism, human error, vandalism or sabotage, financial insolvency and similar events. Our property and business interruption insurance may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses or failures that may occur. Likewise, while we have disaster recovery policies and arrangements in place, they have not been tested under actual disasters or similar events. Defects in our systems or those of third parties, errors or delays in the processing of payment transactions, telecommunications failures or other difficulties could result in:
loss of revenues;
loss of customers;
loss of customer and cardholder data;
fines imposed by payment networks or regulators;
harm to our business or reputation resulting from negative publicity;
exposure to fraud losses or other liabilities;
additional operating and development costs; or
diversion of management, technical and other resources, among other consequences.
We are subject to economic and political risk, the business cycles of our customers and distribution partners and changes in the overall level of consumer and commercial spending, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The electronic payment industry depends heavily on the overall level of consumer and commercial spending. We are exposed to general economic conditions that affect consumer confidence, consumer spending, consumer discretionary income and changes in consumer purchasing habits. A sustained deterioration in general economic conditions, particularly in the United States, continued uncertainty for an extended period of time, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, persistent inflation, supply chain disruptions, or further increases in interest rates, could adversely affect our financial performance by reducing the number or aggregate volume of transactions made using electronic payments. In general, demand for consumer products may be adversely affected by increases in interest rates and the reduced availability of financing. A reduction in the amount of consumer or commercial spending could result in a decrease in our revenue and profits. If our customers make fewer purchases or sales of products and services using electronic payments, or consumers spend less money through electronic payments, we will have fewer transactions to process at lower dollar amounts, resulting in lower revenue. Additionally, credit card issuers may reduce credit limits and become more selective in their card issuance practices. Any of these developments could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
Further, credit card issuers may reduce credit limits and become more selective in their card issuance practices. We also have a certain amount of fixed and semi-fixed costs, including rent, debt service and salaries, which could limit our ability to quickly adjust costs and respond to changes in our business and the economy.
Rapidly evolving domestic and global economic conditions are beyond our control and could materially adversely affect our business, operations, and results of operations.
U.S. and international markets and, are experiencing uncertain and volatile economic conditions, including from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, Russian aggression in Ukraine and related rises in fuel costs, sustained inflation, threats or concerns of recession, and supply chain disruptions. These conditions make it extremely difficult for us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. Together, these circumstances create an environment in which it is challenging for us to predict future operating results. If these uncertain business, macroeconomic or political conditions continue or further decline, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
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A decline in the use of cards and ACH as payment mechanisms for consumers and businesses or adverse developments in the electronic payment industry in general could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
If consumers and businesses do not continue to use cards or ACH as payment mechanisms for their transactions or if the mix of payments among the types of cards and ACH changes in a way that is adverse to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory changes may also result in our customers seeking to charge their customers additional fees for use of credit or debit cards. Additionally, in recent years, increased incidents of security breaches have caused some consumers to lose confidence in the ability of businesses to protect their information, causing certain consumers to discontinue use of electronic payment methods. Security breaches could result in financial institutions canceling large numbers of credit and debit cards, or consumers or businesses electing to cancel their cards following such an incident.
We may not be able to successfully execute our strategy of growth through acquisitions.
Our future growth and profitability depend, in part, upon our continued expansion within the vertical markets in which we currently operate, the emergence of other vertical markets for electronic payments and our integrated solutions, and our ability to penetrate new vertical markets and our current distribution partners’ customer base. As part of our strategy to expand into new vertical markets, we look for acquisition opportunities and partnerships with other businesses that will allow us to increase our market penetration, technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities.
Although we expect to continue to execute our acquisition strategy:
we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or acquire additional assets on favorable terms;
we may compete with others to acquire assets, which competition may increase, and any level of competition could result in decreased availability or increased prices for acquisition candidates;
we may compete with others for select acquisitions and our competition may consist of larger, better-funded organizations with more resources and easier access to capital;
we may experience difficulty in anticipating the timing and availability of acquisition candidates;
we may not be able to obtain the necessary financing, on favorable terms or at all, to finance any of our potential acquisitions; and
we may not be able to generate cash necessary to execute our acquisition strategy.
The occurrence of any of these factors could adversely affect our growth strategy.
Our expansion into new vertical markets also depends upon our ability to adapt our existing technology or to develop new technologies to meet the particular needs of each new vertical market. We may not have adequate financial or technological resources to develop effective and secure services or distribution channels that will satisfy the demands of these new vertical markets. Penetrating these new vertical markets may also prove to be more challenging or costly or take longer than we may anticipate. If we fail to expand into new vertical markets and increase our penetration into existing vertical markets, we may not be able to continue to grow our revenues and earnings.
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Revenues and profits generated via acquisition may be less than anticipated, the integration process could experience delays or difficulties, and we may fail to uncover all liabilities of acquisition targets through the due diligence process prior to an acquisition, resulting in unanticipated costs, losses or a decline in profits, as well as potential impairment charges.
In evaluating and determining the purchase price for a prospective acquisition, we estimate the future revenues and profits from that acquisition based largely on historical financial performance. Following an acquisition, we may experience some attrition in the number of customers serviced by an acquired provider of payment processing services or included in an acquired portfolio of merchant accounts. Should the rate of post-acquisition customer attrition exceed the rate we forecasted, the revenues and profits from the acquisition may be less than we estimated, which could result in losses or a decline in profits, as well as potential impairment charges.
We perform a due diligence review of each of our acquisition partners. This due diligence review, however, may not adequately uncover all of the contingent or undisclosed liabilities we may incur as a consequence of the proposed acquisition, exposing us to potentially significant, unanticipated costs, as well as potential impairment charges. An acquisition may also subject us to additional regulatory burdens that affect our business in potentially unanticipated and significantly negative ways.
The acquisition of a provider of payment processing services, as well as a portfolio of merchant accounts, requires the transfer of various data processing functions and connecting links to our systems and those of our third-party service providers. If the transfer of these functions and links does not occur rapidly and smoothly, payment processing delays and errors may occur, resulting in a loss of revenues, increased customer attrition and increased expenditures to correct the transitional problems, which could preclude our attainment of, or reduce, our anticipated revenue and profits. Additionally, any integrations that do not occur rapidly and smoothly could divert the attention of management away from other strategic matters, including, but not limited to, acquisitions or product development.

In connection with some acquisitions, we may incur non-recurring severance expenses, restructuring charges or change of control payments. These expenses, charges or payments, as well as the initial costs of integrating the personnel and facilities of an acquired business with those of our existing operations, may adversely affect our operating results during the initial financial periods following an acquisition. In addition, the integration of newly acquired companies may lead to diversion of management attention from other ongoing business concerns.
We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property.
Our intellectual property is critical to our future success, particularly in our strategic verticals where we may offer proprietary software solutions to our customers. We rely on a combination of contractual license rights and copyright, trademark and trade secret laws to establish and protect our proprietary technology. Third parties may challenge, invalidate, circumvent, infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property or the intellectual property of our third-party licensors, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, discontinuance of certain service offerings or other competitive harm. Others, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our products and services, design around or reverse engineer our intellectual property, and in such cases neither we nor our third-party licensors may be able to assert intellectual property rights against such parties. Further, our contractual license arrangements may be subject to termination or renegotiation with unfavorable terms to us, and our third-party licensors may be subject to bankruptcy, insolvency and other adverse business dynamics, any of which might affect our ability to use and exploit the products licensed to us by these third-party licensors. We may have to litigate to enforce or determine the scope and enforceability of our intellectual property rights (including litigation against our third-party licensors), which is expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not prove successful. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to obtain third-party intellectual property could harm our business and ability to compete.
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We may be subject to infringement claims.
We may be subject to costly litigation if our products or services are alleged to infringe upon or otherwise violate a third party’s proprietary rights. Third parties may have, or may eventually be issued, patents that could be infringed by our products and services. Any of these third parties could make a claim of infringement against us with respect to our products and services. We may also be subject to claims by third parties for patent infringement, breach of copyright, trademark, license usage or other intellectual property rights. Any claim from third parties may result in a limitation on our ability to use the intellectual property subject to these claims. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have been purchasing intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours. Even if we believe that intellectual property related claims are without merit, defending against such claims is time consuming and expensive and could result in the diversion of the time and attention of our management and employees. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to redesign affected products or services, enter into costly settlement or license agreements, pay costly damage awards for which we may not have insurance, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or selling certain of our products or services. Even if we have an agreement for indemnification against such costs, the indemnifying party, if any in such circumstances, may be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on reasonable terms or substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be materially and adversely affected.
Some of our solutions contain "open-source" software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of applicable open-source licenses could negatively affect our business.
We use certain software licensed under open-source licenses and may continue to use such software in the future. Some open-source licenses require us to make available source code for modifications or derivative works that we create based upon the open-source software, and that we license such modifications or derivative works pursuant to a particular open source license or other license allowing further use by third parties. Some open-source licenses could require us to release the source code of our proprietary software if we combine our proprietary software with the open-source software subject to that license. Additionally, the terms of many open-source licenses have not been interpreted by United States or other courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions. Using open-source software can also be riskier than using software subject to a more restrictive license because open-source licenses generally do not contain such protections as warranties. Many of the risks associated with using open-source software cannot be eliminated and using such software could adversely affect us.
If we lose key personnel, or if their reputations are damaged, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, and proprietary information of our company could be shared with our competitors.
We depend on the ability and experience of a number of our key personnel, particularly Messrs. Daily, Whitson and Stanford, who have substantial experience with our operations, the rapidly changing payment processing industry and the vertical markets in which we offer our products and services. Many of our key personnel have worked for us for a significant amount of time or were recruited by us specifically due to their experience. Our success depends in part upon the reputation and influence within the industry of our senior managers who have, over the years, developed long standing and favorable relationships with our vendors, card associations, bank sponsors and other payment processing and service providers. It is possible that the loss of the services of one or a combination of our senior executives or key managers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, contractual obligations related to confidentiality and assignment of intellectual property rights may be ineffective or unenforceable, and departing employees may share our proprietary information with competitors in ways that could adversely impact us.
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In a dynamic industry like ours, our success and growth depend on our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees.
Our business functions at the intersection of rapidly changing technological, social, economic and regulatory developments that require a wide-ranging set of expertise and intellectual capital. For us to continue to successfully compete and grow, we must attract, recruit, develop and retain the necessary personnel who can provide the needed expertise across the entire spectrum of our intellectual capital needs. While we have a number of key personnel who have substantial experience with our operations, we must also develop our personnel to provide succession plans capable of maintaining continuity in the midst of the inevitable unpredictability of human capital. The market for qualified personnel is competitive, and we may not succeed in recruiting additional personnel or may fail to effectively replace current personnel who depart with qualified or effective successors. Our effort to retain and develop personnel may also result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability. We can make no assurances that qualified employees will continue to be employed or that we will be able to attract and retain qualified personnel in the future. Failure to retain or attract key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operating results and operating metrics are subject to seasonality and volatility, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and operating results or in perceptions of our business prospects.
We have experienced in the past, and expect to continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our revenues as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically our revenues have been strongest in our first, third and fourth fiscal quarters and weakest in our second fiscal quarter. This is due to the increase in the number and amount of electronic payment transactions related to seasonal retail events, such as holiday and vacation spending. The number of business days in a month or quarter also may affect seasonal fluctuations. We also experience volatility in certain other metrics, such as customers, transactions and dollar volume. Volatility in our key operating metrics or their rates of growth could have a negative impact on our financial results and investor perceptions of our business prospects. Furthermore, we are not able to predict the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic may have on the seasonality of our business.
We are a decentralized company, which presents certain risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting a key business unit than we would in a more centralized environment, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are a decentralized company. While we believe this structure has catalyzed our growth and enabled us to remain responsive to opportunities and to our customers’ needs, it necessarily places significant control and decision-making powers in the hands of local management. This presents various risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting a key business unit than we would in a more centralized environment. In addition, it means that we may be slower to detect compliance related problems and that “company-wide” business initiatives, such as the integration of disparate information technology systems, are often more challenging and costly to implement, and their risk of failure higher, than they would be in a more centralized environment. Depending on the nature of the problem or initiative in question, such failure could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
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We are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations, including commercial disputes and employee claims, such as claims of age discrimination, sexual harassment, gender discrimination, immigration violations or other local, state and federal labor law violations, and from time to time may be involved in governmental or regulatory investigations or similar matters arising out of our current or future business. Any claims asserted against us or our management, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, could harm our reputation or the reputation of our management and have an adverse impact on our relationship with our customers, distribution partners and other third parties and could lead to additional related claims. In light of the potential cost and uncertainty involved in litigation, we have in the past and may in the future settle matters even when we believe we have a meritorious defense. Certain claims may seek injunctive relief, which could disrupt the ordinary conduct of our business and operations or increase our cost of doing business. Our insurance or indemnities may not fully cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending ourselves in pending or future litigation or similar matters under various laws. Any judgments or settlements in any pending litigation or future claims, litigation or investigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, which could negatively affect our financial condition and operating results.
Our contracts are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore, substantially all of our revenue is not subject to foreign currency risk. However, there has been, and may continue to be, significant volatility in global stock markets and foreign currency exchange rates that result in the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in which we conduct business. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar increases the real cost of our products to our end-customers outside of the United States and may lead to reduced demand for our services. If the U.S. dollar continues to strengthen, this could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results. Our operating expenses incurred outside the United States and denominated in foreign currencies are increasing and are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Our international operations subject us to additional risks which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We employ resources outside of the United States to support on onshore operations. Countries outside of the United States may be subject to relatively higher degrees of political and social instability and may lack the infrastructure to withstand political unrest or natural disasters. The occurrence of natural disasters, pandemics, such as COVID-19, or political or economic instability in these countries could interfere with work performed by these labor sources or could result in our having to replace or reduce these labor sources. If countries in which we operate experience civil or political unrest or acts of terrorism, our operations in such countries could be materially impaired. Our vendors in other countries could potentially shut down suddenly for any reason, including financial problems or personnel issues. Such disruptions could decrease efficiency, increase our costs and have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
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Risks Related to Regulation
We are subject to extensive laws and government regulation, the costs of compliance with which can be significant, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations may subject us to penalties and otherwise have an unfavorable impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to numerous federal and state regulations that affect the electronic payments industry. Regulation of our industry has increased significantly in recent years and is constantly evolving. We are also subject to other laws and regulations, including those addressing U.S. financial services, consumer protection, escheat and privacy and information security, among other subjects. Changes to statutes, regulations or industry standards, including interpretation and implementation of statutes, regulations or standards, could increase our cost of doing business or affect the competitive balance. Failure to comply with laws and regulations may have an adverse effect on our business, including the limitation, suspension or termination of services provided to, or by, third parties, and the imposition of other penalties or fines. To the extent these laws and regulations negatively impact the business, operations or financial condition of our customers, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because, among other matters, our customers could have less capacity to purchase products and services from us, could decide to avoid or abandon certain lines of business, or could seek to pass on increased costs to us by negotiating price reductions. In addition, we could be required to invest a significant amount of time and resources in response to new or changes to existing laws, regulations or oversight, or to modify the manner in which we contract with or provide products and services to our customers; and those laws and regulations could directly or indirectly limit how much we can charge for our services. We may not be able to update our existing products and services, or develop new ones, to satisfy our customers’ needs. Any of these events, if realized, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Various laws and regulations, including those in other industries in which we provide services, even if such laws and regulations not directed at us, may require us to make significant efforts to change our products and services and may require that we incur additional compliance costs and change how we price our products and services to our customers and distribution partners. Implementing new compliance efforts is difficult because of the complexity of regulatory requirements, and we are devoting and will continue to devote significant resources to ensure compliance. Furthermore, regulatory actions may cause changes in business practices by us and other industry participants which could affect how we market, price and distribute our products and services, and which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, even an inadvertent failure to comply with laws and regulations, as well as rapidly evolving social expectations of corporate fairness, could damage our business or our reputation.
Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and other federal and state regulations may increase our compliance costs, limit our revenues and otherwise negatively affect our business.
Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, there have been substantial reforms to the supervision and operation of the financial services industry, including numerous new regulations that have imposed compliance costs and, in some cases, limited revenue sources for us and our financial institution partners and customers. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB, which is empowered to conduct rule-making and supervision related to, and enforcement of, federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has issued guidance that applies to “supervised service providers,” which the CFPB has defined to include service providers, like us, to CFPB supervised banks and nonbanks. In addition, federal and state agencies have recently proposed or enacted cybersecurity regulations, such as the Cybersecurity Requirements for Financial Services Companies issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services and the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Enhanced Cyber Risk Management Standards issued by The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in October 2016. Such cybersecurity regulations are applicable to large bank holding companies and their subsidiaries, as well as to service providers to those organizations. Any new rules and regulations implemented by the CFPB, state or other authorities or in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act could, among other things, slow our ability to adapt to a rapidly changing industry, require us to make significant additional investments to comply with them, redirect time and resources to compliance obligations, modify our products or services or the manner in which they are provided, or limit or change the amount or types of revenue we are able to generate.
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Interchange fees, which the payment processor typically pays to the card issuer in connection with credit and debit card transactions, are subject to increasingly intense legal, regulatory and legislative scrutiny. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act regulates and limits debit card fees charged by certain card issuers and allows businesses and organizations to set minimum dollar amounts for the acceptance of credit cards. Specifically, under the so-called “Durbin Amendment” to the Dodd-Frank Act, the interchange fees that certain issuers charge businesses and organizations for debit transactions are regulated by the Federal Reserve and must be “reasonable and proportional” to the cost incurred by the issuer in authorizing, clearing and settling the transactions. Rules released by the Federal Reserve in July 2011 to implement the Durbin Amendment mandate a cap on debit transaction interchange fees for card issuers with assets of $10 billion or greater. Since October 2011, a payment network may not prohibit a card issuer from contracting with any other payment network for the processing of electronic debit transactions involving the card issuer’s debit cards, and card issuers and payment networks may not inhibit the ability of businesses and organizations to direct the routing of debit card transactions over any payment networks that can process the transactions.
Rules implementing the Dodd-Frank Act also contain certain prohibitions on payment network exclusivity and merchant routing restrictions. These restrictions could negatively affect the number of debit transactions processed, and prices charged per transaction, which would negatively affect our business.
If we violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (“FERPA”) and the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (“PPRA”), it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers in our Education vertical and could harm our reputation. Further, if we disclose student information in violation of FERPA or PPRA, our access to student information could be suspended.
Our systems and solutions must also comply, in certain circumstances, with FERPA and PPRA, as well as with rapidly emerging state student data privacy laws that require schools to protect student data and to adopt privacy policies which can significantly vary from one state to another. FERPA generally prohibits an educational institution from disclosing personally identifiable information from a student’s education records without a parent’s consent unless certain statutory exceptions apply. Our school customers and their students disclose to us, and we may store, certain information that originates from or comprises a student education record under FERPA. PPRA puts limits on “survey, analysis or evaluations” that may come into play when schools employ internet-based educational services. Schools are required to develop policies that address, among other things, the collection, disclosure or use of personal information collected from students for the purpose of marketing or selling that information, and can place restrictions on third parties’ use of that data. As an entity that provides services to educational institutions, we are indirectly subject to FERPA’s and PPRA’s privacy requirements, and we may not transfer or otherwise disclose or use any personally identifiable information from a student record to another party other than on a basis and in a manner permitted under the statutes. If we violate FERPA or PPRA, it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers and could reduce our revenues or harm our reputation. Further, if we disclose student information in violation of FERPA or PPRA, our access to student information could be suspended, thus inhibiting our business operations.
Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable privacy and security laws and regulations could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers in our Healthcare vertical, harm our reputation and subject us to substantial civil and criminal penalties under laws such as HIPAA and state privacy and security laws.
The data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, and we are or may become subject to numerous federal and state laws and regulations governing the collection, use, disclosure, retention, and security of health-related and other personal information. The cost of compliance with the laws and regulations is high and is likely to increase in the future. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with applicable data privacy and security laws or regulations, our internal policies and procedures or our contracts governing our processing of personal information could result in negative publicity, government investigations and enforcement actions, claims by third parties and damage to our reputation, any of which could have an adverse effect on our operations, financial performance and business.
For example, the HIPAA privacy and security regulations extensively regulate the use and disclosure of protected health information and require business associates such as our company to implement administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect the security of such information. If we are unable to properly protect
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the privacy and security of protected health information entrusted to us, we could be found to have breached our contracts with our customers and be subject to investigation by the HHS Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”). In the event OCR finds that we have failed to comply with applicable HIPAA privacy and security standards, we could face civil and criminal penalties. OCR has become an increasingly active regulator and has signaled its intention to continue this trend. OCR has the discretion to impose penalties without being required to attempt to resolve violations through informal means. Further, OCR may require companies to enter into resolution agreements and corrective action plans which impose ongoing compliance requirements. OCR enforcement activity can result in financial liability and reputational harm, and responses to such enforcement activity can consume significant internal resources. In addition to enforcement by OCR, state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions under either HIPAA or similar state laws, seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. Although we have implemented and maintain policies, processes and a compliance program infrastructure to assist us in complying with these laws and regulations and our contractual obligations, we cannot provide assurance regarding how these laws and regulations will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our Healthcare vertical operations. Further, the FTC has prosecuted certain data breach cases as unfair and deceptive acts or practices under the Federal Trade Commission Act.
If we violate the federal AKS, the CMP Law, the federal FCA, the Cures Act or similar federal or state laws and regulations, it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our customers in our Healthcare vertical, harm our reputation and subject us to substantial civil and criminal penalties.
We strive to comply with healthcare laws, regulations and other requirements applicable to us directly and to our customers and contractors, but there can be no assurance that our operations will not be challenged or impacted by enforcement initiatives. We have been, and in the future may become, involved in governmental investigations, audits, reviews and assessments. Even an unsuccessful challenge by regulatory and other authorities or private whistleblowers could be expensive and time-consuming, could result in loss of business, exposure to adverse publicity and injury to our reputation and could adversely affect our ability to retain and attract customers.
Healthcare laws, regulations and other requirements impacting our Healthcare vertical operations include the following:
Anti-Kickback Laws. A number of federal and state laws govern patient referrals, financial relationships with physicians and other referral sources and inducements to providers and patients, including restrictions contained in amendments to the Social Security Act, commonly known as the AKS. The AKS contains a limited number of exceptions, and the Office of the Inspector General (“OIG”) of HHS has created regulatory safe harbors to the AKS. Activities that comply with a safe harbor are deemed protected from prosecution under the AKS. Certain of our contracts and other arrangements may not meet an exception or a safe harbor. Failure to qualify for safe harbor protection does not mean the arrangement necessarily violates the AKS, but it may subject the arrangement to greater government scrutiny. We cannot provide assurance that practices outside of a safe harbor will not be found to violate the AKS. Allegations of violations of the AKS may be brought under the civil CMP Law, which requires a lower burden of proof than the AKS.
The HHS OIG has a longstanding concern that percentage-based billing arrangements may increase the risk of improper billing practices. The HHS OIG recommends that medical billing companies develop and implement comprehensive compliance programs to mitigate this risk. In addition, certain states have adopted laws or regulations forbidding splitting of fees with non-physicians, which may be interpreted to prevent business service providers, including medical billing providers, from using a percentage-based billing arrangement. While we have developed and implemented a comprehensive billing compliance program that we believe is consistent with the federal guidance, our failure to ensure compliance with controlling legal requirements, accurately anticipate the application of these laws and regulations to our business and contracting model, or other failure to comply with regulatory requirements, could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity and negatively affect our business.
Violation of the AKS is a felony, and penalties may include imprisonment, criminal fines and substantial civil monetary penalties. In addition, submission of a claim for items or services generated in violation of the AKS may be subject to additional penalties under the federal FCA as a false or fraudulent claim.
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False or Fraudulent Claim Laws; Medical Billing and Coding. Medical billing, coding and collection activities are governed by numerous federal and state civil and criminal laws, regulations and sub-regulatory guidance. Our Healthcare vertical may be subject to, or contractually required to comply with, numerous federal and state laws that prohibit false or fraudulent claims including but not limited to the federal FCA, the CMP Law and state equivalents. For example, errors or the unintended consequences of data manipulations by us or our systems with respect to the entry, formatting, preparation or transmission of claims, coding, audit, eligibility and other information, may result in allegations of false or fraudulent claims.
False or fraudulent claims under the FCA and other laws include, but are not limited to, billing for services not rendered, making or causing to be made or used a false record or statement that is material to a false claim, failing to report and refund known overpayments within 60 days of identifying the overpayment, misrepresenting actual services rendered, improper coding and billing for medically unnecessary items or services. Submission of a claim for an item or service generated in violation of the AKS constitutes a false or fraudulent claim. In addition, the FCA prohibits the knowing submission of false claims or statements to the federal government, including to Medicare and Medicaid programs. Although simple negligence will not give rise to liability under the FCA, "knowingly" submitting a false claim may result in liability. When an entity is determined to have violated the FCA, the government may impose substantial civil fines and penalties for each false claim, plus treble damages, and exclude the entity from participation in federal healthcare programs. Private parties are able to bring qui tam, or whistleblower, lawsuits on behalf of the government in connection with alleged false claims submitted to the government, and these private parties are entitled to share in any amounts recovered by the government. Several states, including states in which we operate, have adopted their own false claims provisions and their own whistleblower provisions whereby a private individual may file a civil lawsuit in state court.
Some fraud and abuse laws, such as the CMP Law, require a lower burden of proof than other fraud, waste and abuse laws. Federal and state authorities increasingly assert liability under the CMP Law, especially where they believe they cannot meet the higher burden of proof requirements under the various criminal healthcare fraud provisions. Current penalties under the CMP Law are significant and may result in penalties of up to three times the amount claimed or received. Civil monetary penalties, including those imposed under the AKS, FCA, and CMP Law are updated annually based on changes to the consumer price index.
Although we believe our processes are consistent with applicable reimbursement rules and industry practice, a court, government authority or whistleblower could challenge these processes. In addition, we cannot guarantee that federal and state authorities will regard any billing and coding errors we process or make as inadvertent or will not hold us responsible for any compliance issues related to claims, reports and other information we handle on behalf of our customers. We cannot predict the impact of any enforcement actions under the various false claims and fraud, waste and abuse laws applicable to our operations. Even an unsuccessful challenge of our practices could cause us to incur adverse publicity and significant legal and related costs.
The laws and regulations in this area are both broad and vague and judicial interpretation can be inconsistent. We review our practices with regulatory experts in an effort to comply with all applicable laws and regulatory requirements. However, we are unable to predict how laws and regulations will be interpreted or the full extent of their application, particularly to services that are not directly billed to or reimbursed by federal healthcare programs, such as transaction processing services. Any determination by a federal or state regulatory authority that any of our activities or those of our customers or vendors violate any of these laws or regulations could: (i) subject us to civil or criminal penalties, (ii) require us to enter into corporate integrity agreements or similar agreements with government regulators to meet ongoing compliance obligations, (iii) require us to change or terminate some portions of our business, (iv) require us to refund a portion of our service fees, and/or (v) disqualify us from providing services to customers that are, or do business with, government programs. Any of these could result in a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Even an unsuccessful challenge of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response.
The Cures Act and Implementing Regulations (Information Blocking and HIT Standards and Certification Requirements). Standards regarding electronic exchange of information and interoperability are subject to regular revision and updates, and we are required to modify and enhance products and services accordingly. The Information Blocking Final Rule prohibits healthcare providers, HIEs, and HIT developers, including our subsidiary that provides electronic medical records, from information blocking, which is defined as practices likely to interfere with, prevent, or materially discourage access, exchange, or use of EHI, except as
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required by law or specified by HHS as a reasonable and necessary activity. Civil monetary penalties for information blocking by HIT developers are substantial, up to $1 million per violation. The HIT Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule imposes new criteria related to EHI export and standardized APIs for patient services, and HIT developers of certified HIT need to ensure that their products and services meet the requisite technical standards by the relevant deadlines and continue to evolve as developers and other stakeholders release revised versions of these standards. Additionally, HIT developers that participate in the ONC Health IT Certification Program, like i3, must make various certifications regarding their HIT and attest to compliance with applicable conditions of certification, including those related to information blocking.
These new rules are currently applicable to certain services we offer, and customers may insist that we develop additional solutions that comply with these various interoperability requirements, which could subject us to additional costs. We currently are and likely will continue to have certain solutions certified by ONC, which could further increase development costs and delay customer sales and implementations. We also may incur costs in periods prior to the corresponding recognition of revenue. To the extent current regulations are subsequently changed or supplemented, customers may postpone or cancel their decisions to purchase or implement such solutions.
Exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs. The OIG may or must exclude individuals and entities involved in misconduct related to federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, from participation in those programs. Federal law prohibits federal healthcare programs from paying for items or services furnished, ordered, or prescribed by an individual or entity excluded from participation. The prohibition against federal program payment extends to payment for administrative and management services not directly related to patient care. Civil penalties may be imposed against providers and entities that employ or enter into contracts with excluded individuals to provide items or services to federal healthcare program beneficiaries. We have implemented compliance policies and procedures to screen for excluded individuals. However, if we are found to have employed or contracted with an excluded individual or entity, we could face significant consequences such as exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, civil monetary penalties, and treble damages. In addition, we could be liable under our customer contracts, if we are excluded by the OIG or employ or contract with an excluded individual or entity.
Recent and future developments in the healthcare industry, particularly those related to HIT, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
A material portion of our revenue is derived from the healthcare industry, which is highly regulated and subject to changing political, legislative, regulatory and other influences.
There are numerous federal, state and private initiatives seeking to increase the use of HIT as a means of improving care and reducing costs. For example, the HITECH Act and the Cures Act promote the use of EHR technology, interoperability and the efficient exchange of EHI. These statutes are implemented mainly through HIPAA, CMS’s Promoting Interoperability Program, and ONC’s Information Blocking Final Rule and HIT Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule. The Information Blocking Final Rule, for example, prohibits health care providers, HIEs, and HIT developers from information blocking, which is defined as practices likely to interfere with, prevent, or materially discourage access, exchange, or use of EHI, except as required by law or specified by HHS as a reasonable and necessary activity. The Company is subject to this rule as an HIT developer. Civil monetary penalties for information blocking by HIT developers are substantial, up to $1 million per violation. The HIT Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule imposes criteria related to EHI export and standardized APIs for patient services, and HIT developers of certified HIT need to ensure that their products and services meet the requisite technical standards by the relevant deadlines and continue to evolve as developers and other stakeholders release revised versions of these standards. Additionally, HIT developers that participate in the ONC Health IT Certification Program, like i3, must make various certifications regarding their HIT and attest to compliance with applicable conditions of certification, including those related to information blocking.
These and other initiatives may result in additional legal or regulatory requirements, the cost of compliance with which may be significant; encourage more companies to enter our markets, provide advantages to our competitors; and/or result in the development of competitive technology solutions. Any such initiatives also may
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result in a reduction of expenditures by existing or potential customers, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
In addition, other general reductions in expenditures by healthcare industry constituents could result from, among other things, government regulation or private initiatives that affect the manner in which providers interact with patients, payers or other healthcare industry constituents, including changes in pricing or means of delivery of healthcare solutions. In addition, cost containment efforts at the federal and state levels may affect industry expenditures. For example, the Budget Control Act of 2011 requires automatic spending reductions to reduce the federal deficit. CMS began imposing a 2% reduction on payments of Medicare claims in 2013. These reductions have been extended through 2030. In addition, the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 increased the federal budget deficit in a manner that triggered an additional statutorily mandated sequestration. As a result, an additional payment reduction of up to 4% was required to take effect in January 2022. However, Congress has delayed implementation of this payment reduction until 2023.
Even if general expenditures by healthcare industry constituents remain the same or increase, other developments in the healthcare industry may reduce spending on healthcare IT and services or in some or all of the specific markets we serve or are planning to serve. In addition, our customers’ expectations regarding pending or potential healthcare industry developments also may affect their budgeting processes and spending plans with respect to the types of solutions we provide. For example, use of our solutions could be affected by:
changes in the billing patterns of providers;
changes in the design of health insurance plans; and
changes in the contracting methods payers use in their relationships with providers.
The healthcare industry has changed significantly in recent years, and we expect that significant changes will continue to occur. The timing and impact of developments in the healthcare industry are difficult to predict. We cannot be sure that the markets for our solutions will continue to exist at their current levels or will not change in ways that adversely affect us, or that we will have adequate technical, financial and marketing resources to react to changes in those markets.
We may be a party to regulatory and other proceedings that could result in unexpected adverse outcomes.
From time to time, we have been, are and may in the future be, a party to legal and regulatory proceedings, including investigations, audits, and other reviews. There are an increasing number of investigations and proceedings in the healthcare industry that seek recovery under HIPAA, AKS, the FCA, the CMP, state laws and other statutes and regulations applicable to our business as described in more detail above. Such proceedings can result in verdicts, injunctive relief or other sanctions that may affect how we operate our business and/or have an adverse effect on our financial condition. Violations of applicable statutes and regulations may result in criminal penalties and in substantial civil penalties, including exclusion from government healthcare programs, and settlements of lawsuits involving Medicare and Medicaid issues routinely require monetary penalties and corporate integrity agreements. Assessing and predicting the outcome of these matters involves substantial uncertainties. Unexpected outcomes in these legal proceedings, or changes in management’s evaluations or predictions and accompanying changes in established reserves, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Litigation is costly, time-consuming and disruptive to normal business operations. In addition, the defense of these matters could result in continued diversion of our management’s time and attention away from business operations, which could also harm our business. Even if these matters are resolved in our favor, the uncertainty and expense associated with unresolved legal proceedings could harm our business and reputation.
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We must comply with laws and regulations prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices, and any failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business.
We and many of our customers are subject to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In addition, provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”), the Telemarketing Sales Act and other laws, rules and or regulations, may directly impact the activities of certain of our customers, and in some cases may subject us, as the electronic payment processor or provider of certain services, to investigations, fees, fines and disgorgement of funds if we were deemed to have improperly aided and abetted or otherwise provided the means and instrumentalities to facilitate the illegal or improper activities of the customer through our services. Various federal and state regulatory enforcement agencies including the Federal Trade Commission and state attorneys general have authority to take action against non-banks that engage in UDAAP, or violate other laws, rules and regulations. To the extent we are processing payments or providing products and services for a customer that may be in violation of laws, rules and regulations, we may be subject to enforcement actions and as a result may incur losses and liabilities that may adversely affect our business.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws of other countries in which we provide services or have employees.
Because of our international operations we could be adversely affected by violations of the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and similar anti-bribery laws of other countries in which we provide services or have employees. The FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or other third parties for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or gaining any business advantage. While our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, we cannot provide assurance that our internal control policies and procedures always protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, contractors or agents. Failure to comply with the FCPA and could result in the imposition of civil or criminal fines and penalties and could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Numerous other federal laws affect our business, and any failure to comply with those laws could harm our business.
Our payment facilitator solutions present certain regulatory challenges, principally those relating to money transmitter issues. To address these challenges we, along with our third-party service providers, use structural arrangements designed to prevent us from receiving or controlling our customer’s funds and therefore remove our activities from the scope of money transmitter regulation. There can be no assurance that these structural arrangements will remain effective as money transmitter laws continue to evolve or that the applicable regulatory bodies, particularly state agencies, will view our payment facilitator activities as compliant.
Our business may also be subject to the Fair Credit Reporting Act (the “FCRA”), which regulates the use and reporting of consumer credit information and imposes disclosure requirements on entities that take adverse action based on information obtained from credit reporting agencies. We could be liable if our practices under the FCRA do not comply with the FCRA or regulations under it.
The Housing Assistance Tax Act of 2008 included an amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), that requires information returns to be made for each calendar year by payment processing entities and third-party settlement organizations with respect to payments made in settlement of electronic payment transactions and third-party payment network transactions occurring in that calendar year. Reportable transactions are also subject to backup withholding requirements. We could be liable for penalties if our information returns are not in compliance with these regulations.
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Depending on how our products and services evolve, we may be subject to a variety of additional laws and regulations, including those governing money transmission, gift cards and other prepaid access instruments, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, restrictions on foreign assets, gambling, banking and lending, U.S. Safe Harbor regulations, and import and export restrictions. Additionally, we are contractually required to comply with certain anti-money laundering regulations in connection with our payment processing activities. These regulations are generally governed by FinCEN and OFAC. Our efforts to comply with these laws and regulations could be costly and result in diversion of management time and effort and may still not guarantee compliance. Regulators continue to increase their scrutiny of compliance with these obligations, which may require us to further revise or expand our compliance program, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of our customers, and to monitor transactions. If we are found to be in violation of any such legal or regulatory requirements, we may be subject to monetary fines or other penalties such as a cease and desist order, or we may be required to make product changes, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Changes in tax laws or their interpretations, or becoming subject to additional U.S., state or local taxes that cannot be passed through to our customers, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to extensive tax liabilities, including federal and state and transactional taxes such as excise, sales/use, payroll, franchise, withholding, and ad valorem taxes. Changes in tax laws or their interpretations could increase our tax burden and decrease the amount of revenues we receive, the value of any tax loss carryforwards and tax credits recorded on our balance sheet and the amount of our cash flow, and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Some of our tax liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authority which could increase our tax liabilities. Furthermore, companies in the payment processing industry, including us, may become subject to incremental taxation in various tax jurisdictions. Taxing jurisdictions have not yet adopted uniform positions on this topic. If we are required to pay additional taxes and are unable to pass the tax expense through to our customers, our costs would increase and our net income would be reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changing laws and governmental rules and regulations designed to protect or limit access to or use of personal information could adversely affect our ability to effectively provide our products and services, and actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal and regulatory obligations may negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to those laws and regulations discussed previously that are imposed by the card networks and NACHA, governmental bodies in the United States have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, laws and regulations restricting the use, collection, storage, transfer and disposal of, and requiring safeguarding of, personal information. Our operations are subject to certain provisions of these laws. Relevant federal privacy laws include, in addition to FERPA and PPRA described above, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which applies directly to a broad range of financial institutions and indirectly, or in some instances directly, to companies that provide services to financial institutions. The U.S. Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act also regulates the collection of information by operators of websites and other electronic solutions that are directed to children under 13 years of age. These laws and regulations restrict the collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, require notice to individuals of privacy practices and provide individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of protected information. They also impose requirements for safeguarding and proper destruction of personal information through the issuance of data security standards or guidelines. In addition, there are state laws and regulations restricting the ability to collect and utilize certain types of information such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers. Certain states impose similar privacy obligations as well as obligations to provide notification of security breaches of computer databases that contain personal information to affected individuals, state officers and consumer reporting agencies and businesses and governmental agencies that own data.
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In connection with providing products and services to our customers, we are required by regulations, government-required standards, and by our contracts with customers and with our financial institution distribution partners to provide assurances regarding the confidentiality and security of non-public consumer information. These contracts may require periodic audits by independent companies regarding our compliance with applicable standards. The compliance standards relate to the security of our infrastructure, and include components and operational procedures designed to safeguard the confidentiality and security of individuals’ non-public personal information that our customers share with us. Our ability to maintain compliance with these standards and satisfy these audits will affect our ability to attract, grow and maintain business in the future. If we fail to comply with the laws and regulations relating to data privacy and information security, we could be exposed to legal claims and actions or to regulatory enforcement proceedings. In addition, our relationships and reputation could be harmed, which could inhibit our ability to retain existing customers and distribution partners and obtain new customers and distribution partners.
Legal requirements relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data continue to evolve. For example, in June 2018, the State of California enacted the CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA requires companies (regardless of their location) that collect personal information of California residents to notify consumers about their data collection, use, and sharing practices. The CCPA also grants consumers specific rights to access and to delete their data and to opt out of certain data sharing with or sales to third parties. The California Attorney General is currently responsible for the enforcement of the CCPA and issued Final Regulations governing CCPA compliance on August 14, 2020. The California Attorney General can impose statutory fines for violations and consumers have a limited private right of action for unauthorized access to certain categories of information. Notably, it may be possible to have statutory damages imposed without proof of actual damages from the unauthorized access. On November 3, 2020, California voters passed Proposition 24, enacting the CPRA, which will become effective on January 1, 2023, but applies to certain personal information collected on or after January 1, 2022. CPRA amends and expands the CCPA to create additional consumer privacy rights, such as the right of correction and the right to limit the use and disclosure of sensitive personal information. The CPRA also establishes a new privacy enforcement agency, the CPPA, which will assume responsibility for promulgating, revising, and implementing regulations interpreting the CCPA and CPRA by either July 1, 2021, or six months after the CPPA indicates it is ready to begin rulemaking (whichever is later). Unlike the CCPA, the CPRA cannot be repealed by the California legislature, but can be amended by a simple majority provided such amendments are consistent with and further the purpose and intent of the law.
In addition, several other states have introduced or passed similar legislation to the CCPA, including Nevada, Colorado, Virginia and Maine, that may impose varying standards and requirements on our data collection, use and processing activities. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the online collection, use, dissemination and security of data.
Government regulators, industry groups and class action attorneys are increasingly scrutinizing how companies collect, process, use, store, share and transmit personal data. Regulators and courts may expand interpretations of existing laws, thereby further impacting our business. If more restrictive privacy laws or rules and/or inconsistent legal requirements are adopted by authorities in the future on the federal or state level, or regulators' enforcement priorities shift, our compliance costs may increase and our ability to perform due diligence on, and monitor the risk of, our current and potential customers may decrease, which could create liability for us. Additionally, if we suffer a data breach, other privacy or cybersecurity regulatory compliance failures or are subject to fines, sanctions or proceedings as a result of actual or perceived compliance failures, or any similar event causing reputational harm, our opportunities for growth may be curtailed, and our potential liability for security breaches may increase, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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These laws and regulations may change rapidly, and it is frequently unclear how they apply to our business. Any failure of our products or services to comply with these laws and regulations could result in substantial civil or criminal liability and could, among other things, adversely affect demand for our services, invalidate all or portions of some of our contracts with our customers and financial institution partners, or require us to change or terminate some portions of our business. Further, reform efforts or changing healthcare regulatory requirements may also render our products or services obsolete or may block us from accomplishing our work or from developing new products or services. This may in turn impose additional costs upon us to adapt to the new operating environment or to further develop or modify our products and services. Such healthcare reforms may also make introduction of new products and service costlier or more time-consuming than we currently anticipate. These changes may also prevent our introduction of new products and services or make the continuation or maintenance of our existing products and services unprofitable or impossible.
We will no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company” on September 30, 2023, and as a result, we will have to comply with increased disclosure and compliance requirements.
We are currently an emerging growth company ("EGC") as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the "JOBS Act"). However, September 30, 2023 will be last day of the fiscal year in which the five-year anniversary of our IPO occurs, and at that point we will no longer qualify as an EGC. As such, we will be subject to certain disclosure and compliance requirements that apply to other public companies but did not previously apply to us due to our status as an emerging growth company. These requirements include, but are not limited to:
the requirement that our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002:
compliance with any requirement that may be adopted by the PCAOB regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor's report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, including critical audit matters;
the requirement that we provide full and more detailed disclosures regarding executive compensation; and
the requirement that we hold a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and obtain stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We expect that the loss of EGC status and compliance will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and cause management and other personnel to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to public company reporting requirements.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and competitive position.
On May 9, 2019, we replaced our existing senior secured credit facility with a new 2019 senior secured credit facility (the “Senior Secured Credit Facility”). The Senior Secured Credit Facility, as amended in October 2022, consists of a $375 million revolving credit facility, together with an option to increase the revolving credit facility and/or obtain incremental term loans in an additional principal amount of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate (subject to the receipt of additional commitments for any such incremental loan amounts). The Senior Secured Credit Facility accrues interest at Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") (based upon an interest period of one, three or six months), plus an adjustment of 0.10%, plus an applicable margin of up to 3.25%, or the base rate (defined as the highest of (x) the Bank of America prime rate, (y) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% and (z) Term SOFR, plus an adjustment of 0.10%, plus 1.00%), plus an applicable margin of 0.25% to 1.25% (1.25% as of September 30, 2022), in each case depending upon the consolidated total leverage ratio, as defined in the agreement. Interest is payable at the end of the selected interest period, but no less frequently than quarterly. Additionally, the Senior Secured Credit Facility requires the Company to pay unused commitment fees of 0.15% to 0.30% (0.30% as of September 30, 2022) on any undrawn amounts under the revolving credit facility and letter of credit fees of up to 3.25% on the maximum amount available to be drawn under each letter of credit issued under the agreement. As of September 30, 2022, we had borrowings outstanding of $185.0 million under our Senior Secured Credit Facility. Although we may enter into interest rate swap agreements in the future, we and our subsidiaries are exposed to interest rate increases on the floating portion of our Senior Secured Credit Facility that are not covered by interest rate swaps, to the extent we have indebtedness outstanding. For additional information about our Senior Secured Credit Facility, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk” in Part II, Item 7A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
On February 18, 2020, i3 Verticals, LLC issued $138.0 million aggregate principal amount of its Exchangeable Notes. The Exchangeable Notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 1.0% per year, payable semiannually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on August 15, 2020. Prior to August 15, 2024, the Exchangeable Notes are exchangeable only upon satisfaction of certain conditions and during certain periods described in the Indenture, and thereafter, the Exchangeable Notes are exchangeable at any time until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date. The Exchangeable Notes are exchangeable on the terms set forth in the Indenture into cash, shares of Class A common stock, or a combination thereof, at i3 Verticals, LLC’s election. As of September 30, 2022, $117.0 million of the original aggregate principal amount of $138.0 million was outstanding.
To service our debt and any additional debt we may incur in the future, we need to generate cash. Our ability to generate cash is subject, to a certain extent, to our ability to successfully execute our business strategy, including acquisition activity, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. Although we currently expect that our cash flow from operations, current cash and cash equivalents and available borrowing capacity under the Senior Secured Credit Facility will be sufficient to fund our operations and planned expenditures and to service our debt obligations for at least the next twelve months, there can be no assurance that our business will be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings or other financing will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our debt and fund our other liquidity needs. To the extent we are required to use our cash flow from operations or the proceeds of any future financing to service our debt instead of funding working capital, capital expenditures, acquisition activity or other general corporate purposes, we will be less able to plan for, or react to, changes in our business, industry and in the economy generally. This will place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance any of our debt on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that the terms of that debt will allow any of the above alternative measures or that these measures would satisfy our scheduled debt service obligations. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to repay or refinance our debt on favorable terms, it could significantly adversely affect our financial condition and the value of our outstanding debt. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations.
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In addition, the credit agreement governing our Senior Secured Credit Facility contains, and any agreements evidencing or governing other future debt may contain, certain restrictive covenants that limit our ability, among other things, to engage in certain activities that are in our long-term best interests, including our ability to:
incur liens on property, assets or revenues;
incur or assume additional debt or amend our debt and other material agreements;
declare or make distributions and redeem or repurchase equity interests or issue preferred stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase debt;
make investments;
enter into any sale-and-leaseback of property;
engage in certain business activities; and
engage in mergers and asset sales.
The restrictive covenants in our Senior Secured Credit Facility also require us to maintain specified financial ratios. While we have not previously breached and are not in breach of any of these covenants, there can be no guarantee that we will not breach these covenants in the future. Our ability to comply with these covenants and restrictions may be affected by events and factors beyond our control. Our failure to comply with any of these covenants or restrictions could result in an event of default under our Senior Secured Credit Facility. An event of default would permit the lending banks under the facility to take certain actions, including terminating all outstanding commitments and declaring all amounts outstanding under our credit facility to be immediately due and payable, including all outstanding borrowings, accrued and unpaid interest thereon, and all other amounts owing or payable with respect to such borrowings and any terminated commitments. In addition, the lenders would have the right to proceed against the collateral we granted to them, which includes substantially all of our assets.
We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.
In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances, and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities or refinance existing debt for other reasons. We may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. As discussed above, the credit agreement governing our Senior Secured Credit Facility contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to incur additional debt and engage in other capital-raising activities. Any debt financing we obtain in the future could involve covenants that further restrict our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to operate our business, obtain additional capital and pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Furthermore, if we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt or other equity-linked securities, our then-existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle exchanges of the Exchangeable Notes or to repurchase the Exchangeable Notes upon a fundamental change.
Holders of our Exchangeable Notes have the right to require us to repurchase their Exchangeable Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Exchangeable Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the fundamental change repurchase date. In addition, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of Class A common stock to settle an exchange of the Exchangeable Notes, we will be required to make cash payments in respect of such Exchangeable Notes being exchanged. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make purchases of Exchangeable Notes surrendered therefor or Exchangeable Notes being exchanged. In addition, our ability to repurchase the Exchangeable Notes or to pay cash upon exchanges of the Exchangeable Notes is limited by the agreements governing our existing indebtedness (including the Senior Secured Credit Facility) and may also be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements that will govern our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase Exchangeable Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture that governs the Exchangeable Notes or to pay cash
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payable on future exchanges of the Exchangeable Notes if and/or as required by the Indenture would constitute a default under the Indenture. A default under the Indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under the agreements governing our other indebtedness (including the credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facility) and agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Exchangeable Notes or make cash payments upon exchanges thereof.
The conditional exchange feature of the Exchangeable Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In the event the conditional exchange feature of the Exchangeable Notes is triggered, holders of Exchangeable Notes will be entitled to exchange the Exchangeable Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to exchange their Exchangeable Notes, we may elect to settle all or a portion of our exchange obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to exchange their Exchangeable Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which could result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure and Our Company
We are a holding company with no operations of our own, and our principal asset is our controlling membership interest in i3 Verticals, LLC. Accordingly, we depend on distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC to pay our taxes and other expenses.
We are a holding company with no operations of our own and currently have no significant assets other than our ownership of common units of i3 Verticals, LLC. We currently have no independent means of generating revenue. Consequently, our ability to obtain operating funds depends upon distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC. Furthermore, i3 Verticals, LLC is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, is not itself subject to U.S. federal income tax. Instead, its net taxable income is generally allocated to its members, including us, pro rata according to the number of membership interests each member owns. Accordingly, we incur income taxes on our proportionate share of any net taxable income of i3 Verticals, LLC in addition to expenses related to our operations, and our ability to obtain funds to pay these income taxes currently depends upon distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC. We intend to cause i3 Verticals, LLC to distribute cash to us in an amount at least equal to the amount necessary to cover our respective tax liabilities, if any, with respect to our allocable share of the net income of i3 Verticals, LLC and to cover dividends, if any, we declare, as well as any payments due under the Tax Receivable Agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement” or "TRA") by and among i3 Verticals, Inc., i3 Verticals, LLC and each of the holders, other than i3 Verticals, Inc., of common units in i3 Verticals, LLC (the “Continuing Equity Owners”). See the detailed discussion under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Senior Secured Credit Facility” in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of the restrictive covenants, including i3 Verticals, LLC’s obligations to maintain specific financial ratios, that may limit its ability to make certain distributions to us.
To the extent that we need funds to pay our taxes or other liabilities or to fund our operations, and i3 Verticals, LLC is restricted from making distributions to us under applicable agreements under which it is bound, including its financing agreements, laws or regulations, does not have sufficient cash to make these distributions or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, we may have to borrow funds to meet these obligations and operate our business, and our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. To the extent that we are unable to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid.
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The interests of the other Continuing Equity Owners in our business may conflict with the interests of holders of shares of our Class A common stock.
The Continuing Equity Owners, who collectively hold approximately 31% of the combined voting power of our common stock as of November 17, 2022, may receive payments from us under the Tax Receivable Agreement upon a redemption or exchange of their common units in i3 Verticals, LLC, including the issuance of shares of our Class A common stock upon any such redemption or exchange. As a result, the interests of the Continuing Equity Owners may conflict with the interests of holders of shares of our Class A common stock. For example, the Continuing Equity Owners may have different tax positions from us which could influence their decisions regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, whether and when to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, and whether and when we should terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement and accelerate our obligations thereunder. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration tax or other considerations of the Continuing Equity Owners even in situations where no similar considerations are relevant to us.
We may not be able to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that are expected to result from future redemptions or exchanges of common units by holders.
Our organizational structure, including the Tax Receivable Agreement, confers certain benefits upon the Continuing Equity Owners that will not benefit the holders of our Class A common stock to the same extent as it will benefit the Continuing Equity Owners. Under the Tax Receivable Agreement, we are entitled to retain (a) 15% of the U.S. federal and state income tax savings we realize as a result of increases in tax basis created by any future redemptions or exchanges of common units held by our equity holders that are parties to the Tax Receivable Agreement for shares of our Class A common stock or cash for the tax years following a redemption or exchange covered by the Tax Receivable Agreement, and (b) all of the U.S. federal and state income tax savings we realize from such redemptions or exchanges for tax periods ending after those covered by the Tax Receivable Agreement. Our ability to realize, and benefit from, these tax savings depends on several assumptions, including that we will earn sufficient taxable income each year during the period over which the deductions arising from any such basis increases and payments are available and that there are no adverse changes in applicable law or regulations. If our actual taxable income were insufficient or there were adverse changes in applicable law or regulations, we may be unable to realize all or a portion of these expected benefits, and our cash flows and stockholders’ equity could be negatively affected.
In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement to the Continuing Equity Owners may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that upon certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control or if, at any time, we elect an early termination of the Tax Receivable Agreement, then our obligations, or our successor’s obligations, under the Tax Receivable Agreement to make payments thereunder would be based on certain assumptions, including an assumption that we would have sufficient taxable income to fully use all potential future tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.
As a result of the foregoing, (a) we could be required to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement that are greater than the specified percentage of the actual benefits we ultimately realize in respect of the tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement and (b) if we elect to terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement early, we would be required to make an immediate cash payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits that are the subject of the Tax Receivable Agreement, which payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of such future tax benefits. In these situations, our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to fund or finance our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
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In certain circumstances, i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make distributions to us and the Continuing Equity Owners, and the distributions that i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make may be substantial.
Funds used by i3 Verticals, LLC to satisfy its tax distribution obligations will not be available for reinvestment in our business. Moreover, the tax distributions that i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make may be substantial, and will likely exceed (as a percentage of i3 Verticals, LLC’s net income) the overall effective tax rate applicable to a similarly situated corporate taxpayer.
As a result of potential differences in the amount of net taxable income allocable to us and to the Continuing Equity Owners, as well as the use of an assumed tax rate in calculating i3 Verticals, LLC’s distribution obligations, we may receive distributions significantly in excess of our tax liabilities and obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. To the extent, as currently expected, we do not distribute such cash balances as dividends on our Class A common stock and instead, for example, hold such cash balances or lend them to i3 Verticals, LLC, the Continuing Equity Owners would benefit from any value attributable to such accumulated cash balances as a result of their ownership of Class A common stock following a redemption or exchange of their common units.
Our failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a significant and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
Since the completion of our IPO, we have been subject to a requirement, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), to conduct an annual review and evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting and furnish a report by management on, among other things, our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting each fiscal year beginning with the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC. However, because we are an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the earlier of the fifth year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. Ensuring that we have adequate internal control over financial reporting in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that must be evaluated frequently. Establishing and maintaining these internal controls is and will continue to be costly and may divert management’s attention.
When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In addition, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as such standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude, on an ongoing basis, that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and any remediation actions or the impact of the same on our operations. If we have not adequately implemented or complied with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC, or suffer other adverse regulatory consequences, including penalties for violation of Nasdaq rules. As a result, there could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. A loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements also could occur if we or our independent registered public accounting firm were to report one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system, including the costs of the hiring of additional personnel. Any such action could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could also lead to a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
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Certain provisions of Delaware law and anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.
Certain provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer, or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt, or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.
These provisions provide for, among other things:
prohibiting the use of cumulative voting for the election of directors;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings; and
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings.
In addition, while we have opted out of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the “DGCL,” our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains similar provisions providing that we may not engage in certain “business combinations” with any “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:
prior to such time, our board of directors (“Board of Directors”) approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the votes of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding certain shares; or
at or subsequent to that time, the business combination is approved by our Board of Directors and by the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the votes of our outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with that person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or within the previous three years owned, 15% or more of the votes of our outstanding voting stock. For purposes of this provision, “voting stock” means any class or series of stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
Under certain circumstances, this provision will make it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various business combinations with our company for a three-year period. This provision may encourage companies interested in acquiring our company to negotiate in advance with our Board of Directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if our Board of Directors approves either the business combination or the transaction that results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. These provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our Board of Directors and may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
These provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company that is in the best interest of our minority stockholders. Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our Class A common stock if they are viewed as discouraging future takeover attempts. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to nominate directors for election to our Board of Directors and take other corporate actions.
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We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our Class A common stock, which could depress the price of our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue one or more series of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of the shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our preferred stock can be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our Class A common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discourage bids for our Class A common stock at a premium to the market price, and materially and adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The Continuing Equity Owners own common units in i3 Verticals, LLC, and the Continuing Equity Owners have the right to redeem their common units in i3 Verticals, LLC pursuant to the terms of the limited liability company agreement of i3 Verticals, LLC (the "LLC Agreement") for shares of Class A common stock or cash.
As of September 30, 2022, we have an aggregate of 127,013,552 shares of Class A common stock authorized but unissued, including 10,118,142 shares of Class A common stock issuable, at our election, upon redemption of common units of i3 Verticals, LLC that are held by the Continuing Equity Owners. Subject to certain restrictions contained in the LLC Agreement, the Continuing Equity Owners are entitled to have their common units redeemed from time to time at each of their options (subject in certain circumstances to time-based and service-based vesting requirements and other limitations) for newly-issued shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis or a cash payment equal to a volume weighted average market price of one share of Class A common stock for each Common Unit redeemed, in each case, in accordance with the terms of the LLC Agreement. At our election, however, we may effect a direct exchange by i3 Verticals, Inc. of such Class A common stock or such cash, as applicable, for such common units in lieu of redemption. The Continuing Equity Owners may exercise such redemption right for as long as their common units remain outstanding. We have also entered into a Registration Rights Agreement pursuant to which the shares of Class A common stock issued to certain Continuing Equity Owners upon such redemption and the shares of Class A common stock issued to certain Continuing Equity Owners in connection with the Reorganization Transactions will be eligible for resale registration, subject to certain limitations set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement.
We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our Class A common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of shares of our Class A common stock may have on the market price of our Class A common stock. Sales or distributions of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock, including shares issued in connection with an acquisition, or the perception that such sales or distributions could occur, may cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.
Holders of our Class A common stock may be diluted by future issuances of preferred stock or additional Class A common stock or common units in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise; future sales of such shares in the public market, or the expectations that such sales may occur, could lower our stock price.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue shares of our Class A common stock and options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to our Class A common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion. We could issue a significant number of shares of Class A common stock in the future in connection with investments or acquisitions. Any of these issuances could dilute our existing stockholders, and such dilution could be significant. Moreover, such dilution could have a material adverse effect on the market price for the shares of our Class A common stock.
The future issuance of shares of preferred stock with voting rights may adversely affect the voting power of the holders of shares of our Class A common stock, either by diluting the voting power of our Class A common
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stock if the preferred stock votes together with the common stock as a single class, or by giving the holders of any such preferred stock the right to block an action on which they have a separate class vote, even if the action were approved by the holders of our shares of our Class A common stock.
The future issuance of shares of preferred stock with dividend or conversion rights, liquidation preferences or other economic terms favorable to the holders of preferred stock could adversely affect the market price for our Class A common stock by making an investment in the Class A common stock less attractive. For example, investors in the Class A common stock may not wish to purchase Class A common stock at a price above the conversion price of a series of convertible preferred stock because the holders of the preferred stock would effectively be entitled to purchase Class A common stock at the lower conversion price, causing economic dilution to the holders of Class A common stock.
Sales of shares of our Class A common stock in connection with the Registration Rights Agreement, or the prospect of any such sales, could materially affect the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities.
In connection with the completion of our IPO, we entered into a Registration Rights Agreement with certain Continuing Equity Owners. Any sales in connection with the Registration Rights Agreement, or the prospect of any such sales, could materially and adversely impact the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities.
In the future, we may also issue additional securities if we need to raise capital, including, but not limited to, in connection with acquisitions, which could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters is in Nashville, Tennessee where we occupy approximately 16,000 square feet of office space under a lease that expires in 2027. We lease properties located within various geographic regions in which we conduct business, including Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin. Our properties include office spaces and call centers used for operational, sales, management and administrative purposes.
For leases that are scheduled to expire during the next 12 months, we may negotiate new lease agreements, renew existing lease agreements, exercise any respective options to extend the existing lease agreements, or use alternate facilities. We believe our facilities are adequate for our needs and believe that we should be able to renew any of our existing leases or secure similar property without an adverse impact on our operations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The information required with respect to this item can be found in Note 15 to the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements contained in this report and is incorporated by reference into this Part I, Item 3.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
On June 21, 2018, our Class A common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IIIV.” There is currently no established public trading market for our Class B common stock.
Stockholders
As of November 17, 2022, there were 79 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock. The number of record holders does not include persons who held shares of our Class A common stock in nominee or “street name” accounts through brokers. As of November 17, 2022, there were 53 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock.
Performance Graph
The following graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total shareholder return for (1) our Class A common stock, (2) the S&P 500 Index and (3) the S&P Information technology Index. The graph assumes the value of the investment in our common stock and each index was $100.00 on June 21, 2018 and that all dividends, if any, were reinvested. The comparisons reflected in the graph and table are not intended to forecast the future performance of our stock and may not be indicative of our future performance.
https://cdn.kscope.io/fd5935a5556397cc77d8ed657c8c1fd6-iiiv-20220930_g1.jpg


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The following table presents the corresponding data for the periods shown in the graph:
i3 Verticals, Inc.S&P 500S&P 500 Information Technology
June 21, 2018$100.00 $100.00 $100.00 
September 30, 2018$176.77 $105.97 $105.71 
September 30, 2019$154.77 $108.25 $113.00 
September 30, 2020$194.23 $122.30 $164.27 
September 30, 2021$186.23 $156.65 $209.78 
September 30, 2022$154.08 $130.40 $166.30 
Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not issue any Class A common stock in exchange for Class B common stock pursuant to the terms of the LLC Limited Liability Agreement during the quarter ended September 30, 2022. All other sales of unregistered securities during the year ended September 30, 2022, have been previously disclosed in either a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or a Current Report on Form 8-K.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We did not repurchase any shares of our Class A or Class B common stock during the quarter ended September 30, 2022.
Dividends
We have never declared or paid a cash dividend on our common stock. We intend to retain any earnings to finance the growth and development of our business and do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Our Board of Directors reviews our dividend policy from time to time and may declare dividends at its discretion; however, our Senior Secured Credit Facility (as defined below) places restrictions on the payment of dividends. For further discussion of the Senior Secured Credit Facility, see Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation - Liquidity and Capital Resources."

Item 6. Reserved

Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our audited financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to those under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Certain amounts in this section may not foot due to rounding.
Executive Overview
The Company delivers seamless integrated software and services to customers in strategic vertical markets. Building on its broad suite of software and services solutions, the Company creates and acquires software products to serve the specific needs of its customers. The Company's primary strategic verticals are Public Sector (including Education) and Healthcare.
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COVID-19
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 as a pandemic, which continues to spread throughout the United States and other parts of the world. The spread of COVID-19 and its variant strains brought about many precautions at the state and local government levels to mitigate the spread of the virus, including the closure of local government facilities and parks, schools, restaurants, many businesses and other locations of public assembly. Throughout fiscal 2020 and 2021 governments imposed restrictions in response to increased transmission rates of COVID-19 and eased such restrictions once the transmission rates declined across multiple cycles.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected overall economic conditions in the United States. The economic impact of these conditions materially impacted our business. Our payment volume fluctuated as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite positive developments, such as the availability of vaccines, there are no reliable estimates of how long the pandemic will continue, how many people are likely to be affected by it or the duration or types of restrictions that will be imposed. For that reason, we are unable to predict the long-term impact of COVID-19 and its variant strains on our business at this time.
Acquisitions
A core component of our growth strategy includes a disciplined approach to acquisitions of companies and technology, evidenced by numerous platform acquisitions and tuck-in acquisitions since our inception in 2012. Our acquisitions have opened new strategic vertical markets, increased the number of businesses and organizations to whom we provide solutions and augmented our existing payment and software solutions and capabilities.
Acquisitions subsequent to September 30, 2022
Subsequent to September 30, 2022, we completed the acquisition of two business. One of the businesses is within the Company’s Public Sector vertical and is a leading provider of enterprise software solutions for the motor carrier and motor vehicle markets in the U.S. and Canada. The other business supplements our capabilities in the Merchant Services segment. Total purchase consideration included $89.5 million in cash on hand and revolving line of credit proceeds.
Acquisitions during the year ended September 30, 2022
During the year ended September 30, 2022, we completed the acquisition of three businesses to expand our software offerings in the Public Sector and Healthcare verticals. Total purchase consideration was $107.7 million, including $101.4 million in cash on hand and proceeds from the Company's revolving credit facility, and $6.3 million in contingent consideration.
Acquisitions during the year ended September 30, 2021
On November 17, 2020, we completed the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of ImageSoft, Inc. to expand our software offerings, primarily in the Public Sector vertical. Total purchase consideration was $46.3 million, including $40.0 million in cash consideration, funded by proceeds from our revolving credit facility, and $6.3 million in contingent consideration.
On February 1, 2021, we completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets of Business Information Systems, GP, a Tennessee general partnership and Business Information Systems, Inc., a Tennessee corporation (collectively “BIS”) to expand our software offerings, primarily in the Public Sector vertical. Total purchase consideration was $95.5 million, including $52.5 million in cash on hand and proceeds from the Company's revolving credit facility, 1,202,914 shares of the Company's Class A Common Stock, and $7.8 million in contingent consideration.
During the year ended September 30, 2021, we also completed the acquisitions of six unrelated businesses, to expand the Company’s software offerings in the Public Sector and Healthcare vertical markets, and to add proprietary technology that will augment the Company’s existing platform across several verticals. Total purchase consideration was $65.5 million, including $57.0 million in revolving credit facility proceeds, and $8.5 million of contingent consideration.
The results of operations of these acquired businesses have been included in our financial statements since the applicable acquisition dates. For additional information, see Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements.
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Our Revenue and Expenses
Revenues
We generate revenue from software licenses and subscriptions, other software related services, and volume-based payment processing fees (“discount fees”), and to a lesser extent, software licensing subscriptions, ongoing support and other POS-related solutions that we provide to our customers directly and through our distribution partners. Volume-based fees represent a percentage of the dollar amount of each credit or debit transaction processed. Revenues are also derived from a variety of fixed transaction or service fees, including authorization fees, convenience fees, statement fees, annual fees and fees for other miscellaneous services, such as handling chargebacks.
Interchange and network fees. Interchange and network fees consist primarily of pass-through fees that make up a portion of discount fee revenue. These include assessment fees payable to card associations, which are a percentage of the processing volume we generate from Visa and Mastercard. Upon our adoption of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) on October 1, 2019, these fees are presented net within revenue.
Expenses
Other costs of services. Other costs of services include costs directly attributable to processing and bank sponsorship costs. These also include related costs such as residual payments to our distribution partners, which are based on a percentage of the net revenues (revenue less interchange and network fees) generated from customer referrals. Losses resulting from excessive chargebacks against a customer are included in other cost of services. The cost of equipment sold is also included in cost of services. Interchange and other costs of services are recognized at the time the customer’s transactions are processed.
Selling, general and administrative. Selling, general and administrative expenses include salaries and other employment costs, professional services, rent and utilities and other operating costs.
Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation expense consists of depreciation on our investments in property, equipment and computer hardware and software. Depreciation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Amortization expense for acquired intangible assets and internally developed software is recognized using a proportional cash flow method. Amortization expense for internally developed software is recognized over the estimated useful life of the asset. The useful lives of contract-based intangible assets are equal to the terms of the agreement.
Interest expense, net. Our interest expense consists of interest on our outstanding indebtedness under our Senior Secured Credit Facility and Exchangeable Notes, and amortization of debt discount and issuance costs.
How We Assess Our Business
Merchant Services
Our Merchant Services segment provides comprehensive payment solutions to businesses and organizations. Our Merchant Services segment includes third-party integrated payment solutions as well as traditional merchant processing services across our strategic vertical markets.
Software and Services
Our Software and Services segment delivers vertical market software solutions to customers across all of our strategic vertical markets. These solutions often include embedded payments or other recurring services.
Other
Our Other category includes corporate overhead expenses, when presenting reportable segment information.
For additional information on our segments, see Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements.
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Key Performance Indicators
We evaluate our performance through key performance indicators, including:
annualized recurring revenue ("ARR");
software and related services as a percentage of total revenue; and
the dollar volume of payments our customers process through us (“payment volume”).
ARR is the annualized revenue derived from software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) arrangements, software monetized with transaction-based fees, software maintenance, recurring software-based services, payments revenue and other recurring revenue sources within the quarter. This excludes contracts that are not recurring or are one-time in nature. We focus on ARR because it helps us to assess the health and trajectory of our business. ARR does not have a standardized definition and is therefore unlikely to be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. It should be reviewed independently of revenue and it is not a forecast. The active contracts at the end of a reporting period used in calculating ARR may or may not be extended or renewed by our customers. ARR for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 was $281.2 million and $210.8 million, respectively, representing a period-to-period growth rate of 33.4%.
Software and related services revenue includes the sale of subscriptions, recurring services, ongoing support, licenses, and installation and implementation services specific to software. We focus on software and related services revenue as a percentage of total revenue because it is a strategic goal to expand the software services we provide our customers. Software and related services typically result in long-term partnerships with strong recurring revenues. Software and related services revenue as a percentage of total revenue for the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 was 49% and 39%.
Our payment volume for the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 was $22.6 billion and $18.8 billion, respectively, representing a period-to-period growth rate of 20%. We focus on payment volume because it is a reflection of the scale and economic activity of our customer base and because a significant part of our revenue is derived as a percentage of our customers’ dollar volume receipts. Payment volume reflects the addition of new customers and same store payment volume growth of existing customers, partially offset by customer attrition during the period.
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Results of Operations
Year Ended September 30, 2022 Compared to Year Ended September 30, 2021
The following table presents our historical results of operations for the periods indicated:
Year ended September 30,Change
(in thousands)20222021Amount%
Revenue$317,862 $224,124 $93,738 41.8 %
Operating expenses
Other costs of services73,367 57,706 15,661 27.1 %
Selling general and administrative193,790 134,872 58,918 43.7 %
Depreciation and amortization29,424 24,418 5,006 20.5 %
Change in fair value of contingent consideration23,725 7,140 16,585 n/m
Total operating expenses320,306 224,136 96,170 42.9 %
Loss from operations(2,444)(12)(2,432)n/m
Other expenses
Interest expense, net14,775 9,799 4,976 50.8 %
Other expense (income)991 (2,595)3,586 n/m
Total other expenses15,766 7,204 8,562 118.9 %
Loss before income taxes(18,210)(7,216)(10,994)152.4 %
Provision for income taxes5,007 623 4,384 n/m
Net loss(23,217)(7,839)(15,378)196.2 %
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest(6,115)(3,382)(2,733)80.8 %
Net loss attributable to i3 Verticals$(17,102)$(4,457)$(12,645)283.7 %

n/m = not meaningful
Revenue
Revenue increased $93.7 million, or 41.8%, to $317.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $224.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. This increase was principally driven by incremental revenue from acquisitions completed during the 2022 and 2021 fiscal years of $61.8 million, net of intercompany eliminations, all of which were within Software and Services. In addition to our growth through acquisitions, revenue from existing businesses grew, resulting from growth in software and related services revenues, primarily in our Public Sector verticals, and an increase in payment volume from new and existing customers across the Company.
Revenue within Software and Services increased $79.0 million, or 69.0%, to $193.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $114.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. This increase was principally driven by growth in software and related services revenues in our Public Sector and Healthcare verticals.
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Revenue within Merchant Services increased $12.6 million, or 11.3%, to $124.5 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $111.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. Payment volume from new and existing customers within Merchant Services increased $3.4 billion, or 19.5%, to $20.5 billion for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $17.1 billion for the year ended September 30, 2021.
Other Costs of Services
Other costs of services increased $15.7 million, or 27.1%, to $73.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $57.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in other cost of services within the Merchant Services segment, driven by the increase in payment volume.
Other costs of services within Merchant Services increased $8.4 million, or 16.4%, to $59.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $51.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2021, driven primarily by the growth in payment volume.
Other costs of services within Software and Services increased $5.2 million, or 60.0%, to $13.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $8.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. Acquisitions completed during the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years contributed an incremental $3.4 million, net of intercompany eliminations, to our other cost of services for the year ended September 30, 2022.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $58.9 million, or 43.7%, to $193.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $134.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. This increase was principally driven by a $48.2 million increase in employment expense, primarily resulting from an increase in headcount that resulted from acquisitions and an increase in stock compensation expense. The majority of the remaining increase was comprised of increases in technology expense, travel expense, rental expense and advertising expense.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $5.0 million, or 20.5%, to $29.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $24.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. Amortization expense increased $4.8 million to $26.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $22.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2021 primarily due to greater amortization expense resulting from acquisitions completed during the 2022 and 2021 fiscal years. Depreciation expense increased $0.2 million to $2.5 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $2.3 million for the year ended September 30, 2021.
Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration
Change in fair value of contingent consideration to be paid in connection with acquisitions was a charge of $23.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 due to the performance of some of our acquisitions exceeding our expectations. The change in fair value of contingent consideration for the year ended September 30, 2021 was a charge of $7.1 million.
Interest Expense, net
Interest expense, net, increased $5.0 million, or 50.8%, to $14.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $9.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. The increase reflected a higher average interest rate and a higher average outstanding debt balance for the year ended September 30, 2022 as compared to the year ended September 30, 2021.
Other expense (income)
Other expense was $1.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2022, relating to adjustments of liabilities under our Tax Receivable Agreement related to the remeasurement of the underlying deferred tax asset for changes in estimated income tax rates. Other income was $2.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2021, relating to a net gain on sales of investments of $2.1 million and adjustments of liabilities under our Tax Receivable Agreement related to the remeasurement of the underlying deferred tax asset for changes in estimated income tax rates of $0.5 million.
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Provision for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes was to $5.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 as compared to $0.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. The provision for deferred income taxes increased to an provision for the year ended September 30, 2022 from a benefit for the year ended September 30, 2021. Additionally, the provision for current income tax expense increased for the year ended September 30, 2022 from the year ended September 30, 2021, due to the mix of earnings within the Company. Our effective tax rate of (27)% for the year ended September 30, 2022 differs from the federal statutory rate primarily due to the increase in the valuation allowance and as well as decrease in state taxes and increase in the tax effect of the revaluation of liabilities. i3 Verticals, Inc. is subject to federal, state and local income taxes with respect to its allocable share of any taxable income of i3 Verticals, LLC and is taxed at the prevailing corporate tax rates. 
Year Ended September 30, 2021 Compared to Year Ended September 30, 2020
For discussion of our results of operations for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020, refer to the Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on November 22, 2021.
Seasonality
We have experienced in the past, and may continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our revenues as a result of consumer and business spending patterns. Revenues during the first quarter of the calendar year, which is our second fiscal quarter, tend to decrease in comparison to the remaining three quarters of the calendar year on a same store basis. This decrease is due to the relatively higher number and amount of electronic payment transactions related to seasonal retail events, such as holiday and vacation spending in their second, third and fourth quarters of the calendar year. The number of business days in a month or quarter also may affect seasonal fluctuations. Revenue in our Education vertical fluctuates with the school calendar. Revenue for our Education customers is strongest in August, September, October, January and February, at the start of each semester, and generally weakens throughout the semester, with little revenue in the summer months of June and July. Operating expenses show less seasonal fluctuation, with the result that net income is subject to the same seasonal factors as our revenues. The growth in our business may have partially overshadowed seasonal trends to date, and seasonal impacts on our business may be more pronounced in the future. Furthermore, we are not able to predict the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic may have on the seasonality of our business.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have historically financed our operations (not including acquisitions) and working capital through net cash from operating activities. As of September 30, 2022, we had $3.5 million of cash and cash equivalents and available borrowing capacity of $90.0 million under our Senior Secured Credit Facility, subject to the financial covenants. We usually minimize cash balances by making payments on our revolving credit facility to minimize borrowings and interest expense. As of September 30, 2022, we had borrowings outstanding of $185.0 million under the Senior Secured Credit Facility.
Our primary cash needs are to fund working capital requirements, invest in our technology infrastructure, fund acquisitions and related contingent consideration, make scheduled principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and pay tax distributions to members. We historically have had positive cash flow provided by operations. We currently expect that our cash flow from operations, current cash and cash equivalents and available borrowing capacity under the Senior Secured Credit Facility will be sufficient to fund our operations and planned capital expenditures and to service our debt obligations for at least the next twelve months and foreseeable future.
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Our liquidity profile reflects our completed offering in February 2020 of an aggregate principal amount of $138.0 million in 1.0% Exchangeable Senior Notes due 2025, with substantially all the proceeds being used to pay down outstanding borrowings under our Senior Secured Credit Facility, as well as our September 2020 Public Offering as described below under the heading “Follow-on Offerings.” During the year ended September 30, 2020, we repurchased $21.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Exchangeable Notes for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $17.4 million. We recorded a loss on retirement of debt of $2.3 million due to the carrying value exceeding the fair value of the repurchased portion of the Exchangeable Notes at the dates of repurchases. We may elect from time to time to purchase our outstanding debt in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise. Any such debt repurchases will depend upon prevailing market conditions, our liquidity requirements, contractual restrictions, applicable securities law and other factors.
Our Senior Secured Credit Facility, as amended, requires us to maintain a consolidated interest coverage ratio not less than 3.00 to 1.00, a total leverage ratio not exceeding 5.00 to 1.00 and a consolidated senior secured leverage ratio not exceeding 3.25 to 1.00, provided that for each of the four fiscal quarters immediately following a qualified acquisition, the total leverage ratio and the consolidated senior secured leverage ratio would increase by up to 0.25, subject to certain limitations. As of September 30, 2022, we were in compliance with these covenants with a consolidated interest coverage ratio, total leverage ratio and consolidated senior leverage ratio of 8.17x, 3.68x and 2.24x, respectively. Although we believe our liquidity position remains strong, there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional funds, in the form of debt or equity, or to amend our Senior Secured Credit Facility on terms acceptable to us, if at all, even if we determined such actions were necessary in the future.
Any material adverse change in customer demand and our ability to retain customers, competitive market forces, as well as other factors listed under the heading “Note Regarding Forward-looking Statements,” and in our risk factors included herein could affect our ability to continue to fund our liquidity needs from business operations.
Cash Flows
The following table presents a summary of cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for the following comparative periods.
Year Ended September 30, 2022 Compared to Year Ended September 30, 2021
Year ended September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities$45,846 $44,533 
Net cash used in investing activities$(113,045)$(149,306)
Net cash provided by financing activities$73,033 $102,103 

Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities increased $1.3 million to $45.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $44.5 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. While our net loss increased $15.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from the year ended September 30, 2021, most of this increase was driven by non-cash expenses that do not impact cash flows from operating activities. The primary reason cash provided by operating activities increased despite the increase in net loss was that the increase in net loss was driven by an increase in non-cash contingent consideration of $16.6 million, an increase in equity-based compensation expense of $5.4 million and an increase in depreciation and amortization expense of $5.0 million, all of which increase the net loss but are not cash expenditures. Other changes include decreases in operating assets and liabilities of $17.9 million, which are impacted by the timing of collections and payments, an increase in the provision for deferred income taxes of $2.9 million, a decrease in the gain on sale of investments of $2.1 million and an increase in non-cash lease expense of $1.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 compared to the year ended September 30, 2021.
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Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities decreased $36.3 million to $113.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $149.3 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. The largest driver of cash used in investing activities for the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 was cash used in acquisitions, net of cash acquired. For the year ended September 30, 2022, we used $100.7 million of cash for acquisitions, net of cash acquired compared to $142.5 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. Additionally, expenditures for purchases of merchant portfolios and residual buyouts decreased $1.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 compared to the year ended September 30, 2021. These changes in cash used in investing activities were partially offset by an increase in expenditures for capitalized software of $4.0 million and a decrease in proceeds from the sale of investments of $3.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 compared to the year ended September 30, 2021.
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities decreased $29.1 million to $73.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from $102.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2021. The decrease in net cash provided by financing activities was primarily the result of an increase in payments on the revolving credit facility of $56.7 million and an increase in cash paid for contingent consideration up to our original estimates of $22.4 million, partially offset by an increase in proceeds from the revolving credit facility of $32.9 million and an increase in proceeds from issuance of Class A common stock, net of underwriting discounts and offering costs of $17.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 from year ended September 30, 2021.
Year Ended September 30, 2021 Compared to Year Ended September 30, 2020
For a discussion of the cash flows for the year ended September 30, 2021 compared to the year ended September 30, 2020, refer to Part II, Item 7. “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 22, 2021.
Senior Secured Credit Facility
On May 9, 2019, we replaced our then existing credit facility with a new Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with the guarantors and lenders party thereto and Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent (the “Senior Secured Credit Facility”). The Senior Secured Credit Facility, as amended in October, 2022, consists of a $375.0 million revolving credit facility.
The Senior Secured Credit Facility provides that we have the right to seek additional commitments to provide additional term loan facilities or additional revolving credit commitments in an aggregate principal amount up to $50.0 million so long as, among other things, after giving pro forma effect to the incurrence of such additional borrowings and any related transactions, our consolidated interest coverage ratio would not be less than 3.00 to 1.00, our total leverage ratio would not exceed 5.00 to 1.00 and our consolidated senior leverage ratio would not exceed 3.25 to 1.00, provided that for each of the four fiscal quarters immediately following a qualified acquisition, the total leverage ratio and the consolidated senior secured leverage ratio would increase by up to 0.25, subject to certain limitations.
The provision of any such additional amounts under the additional term loan facilities or additional revolving credit commitments are subject to certain additional conditions and the receipt of certain additional commitments by existing or additional lenders. The lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facility are not under any obligation to provide any such additional term loan facilities or revolving credit commitments.
The proceeds of the Senior Secured Credit Facility, together with proceeds from any additional amounts under the additional term loan facilities or additional revolving credit commitments, may only be used by us to (i) finance working capital, capital expenditures and other lawful corporate purposes, (ii) finance permitted acquisitions and (iii) to refinance certain existing indebtedness.
Borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility will be made, at our option, at the base rate or the Term SOFR rate, plus, in each case, an applicable margin. The base rate is a fluctuating rate of interest per annum equal to the highest of (a) the federal funds rate plus ½ of 1%, (b) the interest announced from time to time by
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Bank of America as its prime rate and (c) the Term SOFR rate plus an adjustment of 0.10%, plus 1%. The Term SOFR rate will be the rate of interest per annum equal to SOFR (based upon an interest period of one, three or six months), plus an adjustment of 0.10%. The applicable margin is based upon our consolidated total leverage ratio, as reflected in the schedule below:
Consolidated Total Leverage RatioCommitment FeeLetter of Credit FeeTerm SOFR Rate LoansBase Rate Loans
> 3.00 to 1.00.30%3.25%3.25%1.25%
> 2.50 to 1.0 but < 3.00 to 1.00.25%2.75%2.75%0.75%
> 2.00 to 1.0 but < 2.50 to 1.00.20%2.50%2.50%0.50%
< 2.00 to 1.00.15%2.25%2.25%0.25%
In addition to paying interest on outstanding principal under the Senior Secured Credit Facility, we will be required to pay a commitment fee equal to the product of between 0.15% and 0.30% (the applicable percentage depending on our consolidated total leverage ratio as reflected in the schedule above) times the actual daily amount by which $375.0 million exceeds the total amount outstanding under the Senior Secured Credit Facility and available to be drawn under all outstanding letters of credit.
We will be permitted to voluntarily reduce the unutilized portion of the commitment amount and repay outstanding loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility, whether such amounts are issued under the Senior Secured Credit Facility or under the additional term loan facilities or additional revolving credit facilities, at any time without premium or penalty.
In addition, if the total amount borrowed under the Senior Secured Credit Facility exceeds $375.0 million at any time, the Senior Secured Credit Facility requires us to prepay such excess outstanding amounts.
All obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facility are unconditionally guaranteed by i3 Verticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and each of i3 Verticals, Inc.’s existing and future direct and indirect material, wholly owned domestic restricted subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions. The obligations are secured by first-priority security interests in substantially all of our tangible and intangible assets, i3 Verticals, Inc. and each subsidiary guarantor, in each case whether owned on the date of the initial borrowings or thereafter acquired.
The Senior Secured Credit Facility places certain restrictions on the ability of us, i3 Verticals, Inc. and their restricted subsidiaries to, among other things, incur debt and liens; merge, consolidate or liquidate; dispose of assets; enter into hedging arrangements; make certain restricted payments; undertake transactions with affiliates; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; make certain investments; prepay or modify the terms of certain indebtedness; and modify the terms of certain organizational agreements.
The Senior Secured Credit Facility contains customary events of default, including payment defaults, breaches of representations and warranties, covenant defaults, cross-defaults to other material indebtedness, certain events of bankruptcy and insolvency, material judgments, certain ERISA events, invalidity of loan documents and certain changes in control.
As of September 30, 2022, we were in compliance with these covenants with a consolidated interest coverage ratio, total leverage ratio and consolidated senior leverage ratio of 8.17x, 3.68x and 2.24x, respectively.
Follow-on Offerings
On September 15, 2020, we completed a public offering (the “September 2020 Public Offering”) of 3,737,500 shares of our Class A common stock, at a public offering price of $23.50 per share, which included a full exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase 487,500 additional shares of Class A common stock from us. We received approximately $83.4 million of net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, but before offering expenses. We used the net proceeds to purchase (1) 3,250,000 Common Units directly from i3 Verticals, LLC, and (2) 487,500 Common Units pursuant to the exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares in full and an equivalent number of Class B common stock (which shares were then canceled) from certain Continuing Equity Owners, in each case at a price per Common Unit equal to the price per share paid by the underwriters for shares of our Class A common stock in the offering. i3 Verticals, LLC received $72.0 million in net
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proceeds from the sale of Common Units to the Company, which we used to repay outstanding indebtedness. In connection with this offering, we recognized an additional deferred tax asset of $3.0 million related to the Tax Receivable Agreement and a corresponding liability of $2.5 million.
Exchangeable Notes
On February 18, 2020, i3 Verticals, LLC issued $138.0 million aggregate principal amount of its 1.0% Exchangeable Senior Notes due February 15, 2025. The Exchangeable Notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 1.0% per year, payable semiannually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on August 15, 2020. The Exchangeable Notes are exchangeable on the terms set forth in the Indenture into cash, shares of Class A common stock, or a combination thereof, at i3 Verticals, LLC’s election. The Exchangeable Notes mature on February 15, 2025, unless earlier exchanged, redeemed or repurchased. We received approximately $132.8 million in net proceeds from the sale of the Exchangeable Notes, as determined by deducting estimated offering expenses paid to third-parties from the aggregate principal amount. i3 Verticals, LLC used a portion of the net proceeds of the Exchangeable Notes offering to pay down outstanding borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility in connection with the effectiveness of the operative provisions of the Amendment and to pay the cost of the note hedge transactions. During the year ended September 30, 2020, we repurchased $21.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Exchangeable Notes for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $17.4 million. As of September 30, 2022, $117.0 million of the original aggregate principal amount of $138.0 million was outstanding.
At-the-Market Program
On August 20, 2021, we, together with i3 Verticals, LLC, entered into an at-the-market offering sales agreement with Raymond James & Associates, Inc., Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and BTIG, LLC (each a “Sales Agent”), under which we may issue and sell, from time to time and through the Sales Agents, shares of our Class A common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125 million (the “ATM Program”). During the quarter and year ended September 30, 2022, we sold 722,000 shares of Class A common stock, raising $17.9 million in net proceeds under the ATM Program. The aggregate compensation paid by the Company to the Sales Agents with respect to such sales was $0.4 million. As of September 30, 2022, we had a remaining capacity to sell up to $107.1 million of our Class A common stock under the ATM Program.
The proceeds from these issuances were used to repay outstanding indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Facility and for other general corporate purposes.
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Material Cash Requirements
The following table summarizes our material cash requirements as of September 30, 2022 related to contracts, leases and borrowings:
Payments Due by Period
Material Cash Requirements
Total
Less than 1 year
1 to 3 years
3 to 5 years
More than 5 years
(in thousands)
Processing minimums(1)
$5,832 $4,512 $1,320 $— $— 
Facility leases21,166 5,492 8,798 4,865 2,011 
Senior Secured Credit Facility and related interest(2)
204,763 11,260 193,503 — — 
Exchangeable Notes and related interest(3)
119,779 1,170 118,609 — — 
Contingent consideration(4)
22,833 21,385 1,448 — — 
Total$374,373 $43,819 $323,678 $4,865 $2,011 
__________________________
1.We have non-exclusive agreements with several processors to provide us services related to transaction processing and transmittal, transaction authorization and data capture, and access to various reporting tools. Certain of these agreements require us to submit a minimum monthly number of transactions for processing. If we submit a number of transactions that is lower than the minimum, we are required to pay to the processor the fees it would have received if we had submitted the required minimum number of transactions.
2.We estimated interest payments through the maturity of our Senior Secured Credit Facility by applying the interest rate of 6.24% in effect on the outstanding balance as of September 30, 2022, plus the unused fee rate of 0.30% in effect as of September 30, 2022.
3.We calculated interest payments through the maturity of our Exchangeable Notes by applying the coupon interest rate of 1.00% on the outstanding principal balance as of September 30, 2022 of $117.0 million.
4.In connection with certain of our acquisitions, we may be obligated to pay the seller of the acquired entity certain amounts of contingent consideration as set forth in the relevant purchasing documents, whereby additional consideration may be due upon the achievement of certain specified financial performance targets. i3 Verticals, Inc. accounts for the fair values of such contingent payments in accordance with the Level 3 financial instrument fair value hierarchy at the close of each subsequent reporting period. The acquisition-date fair value of contingent consideration is valued using a Monte Carlo simulation. i3 Verticals, Inc. subsequently reassesses such fair value based on probability estimates with respect to the acquired entity’s likelihood of achieving the respective financial performance targets.

Potential payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement are not reflected in this table. See “—Tax Receivable Agreement” below.
Tax Receivable Agreement
We are a party to a Tax Receivable Agreement with i3 Verticals, LLC and each of the Continuing Equity Owners, as described in Note 11 of our consolidated financial statements. As a result of the Tax Receivable Agreement, we have been required to establish a liability in our consolidated financial statements. That liability, which will increase upon the redemptions or exchanges of Common Units for our Class A common stock, generally represents 85% of the estimated future tax benefits, if any, relating to the increase in tax basis associated with the Common Units we received as a result of the Reorganization Transactions and other redemptions or exchanges by holders of Common Units. If this election is made, the accelerated payment will be based on the present value of 100% of the estimated future tax benefits and, as a result, the associated liability reported on our consolidated financial statements may be increased. We expect that the payments required under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial. The actual increase in tax basis, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of redemptions or exchanges by the holders of Common Units, the price of our Class A common stock at the time of the redemption or exchange, whether such redemptions or exchanges are taxable, the amount and timing of the taxable income we generate in the future and the tax rate then applicable as well as the portion of our payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement constituting imputed interest. We intend to fund the payment of the amounts due under the Tax Receivable Agreement out of the cash savings that we actually realize in respect of the attributes to which Tax Receivable Agreement relates.
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As of September 30, 2022, the total amount due under the Tax Receivable Agreement was $40.8 million, and payments to the Continuing Equity Owners related to exchanges through September 30, 2022 will range from approximately $0 to $3.3 million per year and are expected to be paid over the next 26 years years. The amounts recorded as of September 30, 2022, approximate the current estimate of expected tax savings and are subject to change after the filing of the Company’s U.S. federal and state income tax returns. Future payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement with respect to subsequent exchanges would be in addition to these amounts.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and the Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and operating results requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the accompanying consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K describe the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Estimates include, but are not limited to, the value of purchase consideration paid and identifiable assets acquired and assumed in acquisitions, goodwill and intangible asset impairment review, determination of performance obligations for revenue recognition, loss reserves, assumptions used in the calculation of equity-based compensation and in the calculation of income taxes, and certain tax assets and liabilities as well as the related valuation allowances.
Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Below is a summary of our critical accounting estimates for which the nature of management’s assumptions are material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change, and for which the impact of the estimates and assumptions on financial condition or operating performance is material.
Contingent Consideration in Acquisitions
On occasion, we may have acquisitions that include contingent consideration. Accounting for business combinations requires us to estimate the fair value of any contingent purchase consideration at the acquisition date. Where relevant, the fair value of material contingent consideration included in an acquisition is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation.
The contingent consideration is revalued each period until it is settled. Management reviews the historical and projected performance of each acquisition with contingent consideration and uses an income probability method to revalue the contingent consideration. The revaluation requires management to make certain assumptions and represent management's best estimate at the valuation date. The probabilities are determined based on a management review of the expected likelihood of triggering events that would cause a change in the contingent consideration paid. For example, if management’s forecasted performance for an acquisition increased, we would have anticipated a higher probability of contingent consideration being paid on the acquisition and would have recorded additional losses from the change in fair value of contingent consideration. Conversely, if management’s forecasted performance for an acquisition decreased, we would have anticipated a higher probability of contingent consideration being paid on the acquisition and would have recorded a gain from change in fair value of contingent consideration. As of September 30, 2022, the fair value of contingent consideration recorded is $22.8 million, with maximum contingent consideration payout of $81.3 million dependent upon achievement of specified financial performance targets, as defined in the purchase agreements.
Goodwill
We test goodwill for impairment using a fair value approach at least annually, absent some triggering event that would require an interim impairment assessment. Absent any impairment indicators, we perform our goodwill impairment testing as of July 1 each year.
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In our goodwill impairment review, we use significant estimates and assumptions that include the identification of reporting units, assigning assets and liabilities to reporting units, assigning goodwill to reporting units and determining the fair value of each reporting unit. Our assessment of qualitative factors involves significant judgments about expected future business performance and general market conditions. In a quantitative assessment, the fair value of each reporting unit is determined based on a combination of techniques, including the present value of future cash flows, applicable multiples of competitors and multiples from sales of like businesses, and requires management to make estimates and assumptions regarding discount rates, growth rates and our future long-term business plans. Changes in any of these estimates or assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and the associated goodwill impairment charge for each reporting unit. For example, if management’s forecasted earnings decreased for a reporting unit, we may have recorded an impairment loss for that reporting unit.
Related Parties
Transactions involving related parties cannot be presumed to be carried out at an arm's length basis, as the requisite conditions of competitive, free-dealing markets may not exist. A description of related-party transactions is provided in Note 16 in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further discussion.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
As of September 30, 2022, the Senior Secured Credit Facility, as amended, consisted of a $275 million revolving credit facility, together with an option to increase the revolving credit facility and/or obtain incremental term loans in an additional principal amount of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate (subject to the receipt of additional commitments for any such incremental loan amounts). As discussed in Note 21 to our consolidated financial statements, effective October 3, 2022, the Senior Secured Credit Facility was amended to, among other things, increase the maximum amount of the revolving credit facility to $375 million.
At September 30, 2022, the Senior Secured Credit Facility accrues interest at Term SOFR (based upon an interest period of one, three or six months), plus an adjustment of 0.10%, plus an applicable margin of 2.25% to 3.25% (3.25% as of September 30, 2022), or the base rate (defined as the highest of (x) the Bank of America prime rate, (y) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% and (z) Term SOFR, plus an adjustment of 0.10%, plus 1.00%), plus an applicable margin of 0.25% to 1.25% (1.25% as of September 30, 2022), in each case depending upon the consolidated total leverage ratio, as defined in the agreement. Interest is payable at the end of the selected interest period, but no less frequently than quarterly. Additionally, the Senior Secured Credit Facility requires the Company to pay unused commitment fees of 0.15% to 0.30% (0.30% as of September 30, 2022) on any undrawn amounts under the revolving credit facility and letter of credit fees of up to 3.25% on the maximum amount available to be drawn under each letter of credit issued under the agreement. The Senior Secured Credit Facility requires maintenance of certain financial ratios on a quarterly basis as follows: (i) a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 3.00 to 1.00, (ii) a maximum total leverage ratio of 5.00 to 1.00, provided, that for each of the four fiscal quarters immediately following a qualified acquisition (each a “Leverage Increase Period”), the required ratio set forth above may be increased by up to 0.25, subject to certain limitations and (iii) a maximum consolidated senior secured leverage ratio of 3.25 to 1.00, provided, that for each Leverage Increase Period, the consolidated senior leverage ratio may be increased by up to 0.25, subject to certain limitations. As of September 30, 2022, we were in compliance with these covenants and there was $90.0 million available for borrowing under the revolving credit facility, subject to the financial covenants.
As of September 30, 2022, we had borrowings of $185.0 million outstanding under the Senior Secured Credit Facility. A 1.0% increase or decrease in the interest rate applicable to such borrowing (which was the Term SOFR rate) would have had a $1.9 million dollar impact on the results of the business.

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Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
As a result of our international operations, we are also exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risks. Because our international operations are not yet material to our consolidated results of operations, a 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates would not have had a material impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial position, or cash flows for the twelve months ended September 30, 2022.
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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
Page
i3 Verticals, Inc. and its Subsidiaries

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of i3 Verticals, Inc.
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of i3 Verticals, Inc., and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Change in Accounting Principle
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has adopted Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, "Leases", using the modified retrospective adoption method on October 1, 2020.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Nashville, Tennessee
November 18, 2022

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2020.
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i3 Verticals, Inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

September 30,
20222021
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$3,490 $3,641 
Accounts receivable, net53,334 38,500 
Settlement assets7,540 4,768 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets19,445 11,214 
Total current assets83,809 58,123 
Property and equipment, net5,670 5,902 
Restricted cash12,735 9,522 
Capitalized software, net52,341 41,371 
Goodwill353,639 292,243 
Intangible assets, net195,919 171,706 
Deferred tax asset43,458 49,992 
Operating lease right-of-use assets17,678 14,479 
Other assets5,063 8,462 
Total assets$770,312 $651,800 
Liabilities and equity
Liabilities
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$9,342 $7,865 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities57,833 50,815 
Settlement obligations7,540 4,768 
Deferred revenue31,975 29,862 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities4,568 3,201 
Total current liabilities111,258 96,511 
Long-term debt, less current portion and debt issuance costs, net287,020 200,605 
Long-term tax receivable agreement obligations40,812 39,122 
Operating lease liabilities, less current portion13,994 11,960 
Other long-term liabilities9,540 14,011 
Total liabilities462,624 362,209 
Commitments and contingencies (see Note 15)
Stockholders' equity
Preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 10,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and 2021
  
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 150,000,000 shares authorized; 22,986,448 and 22,026,098 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively
2 2 
Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 40,000,000 shares authorized; 10,118,142 and 10,229,142 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively
1 1 
Additional paid-in-capital241,958 211,237 
Accumulated deficit(23,582)(6,480)
Total stockholders' equity218,379 204,760 
Non-controlling interest89,309 84,831 
Total equity307,688 289,591 
Total liabilities and equity$770,312 $651,800 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
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i3 Verticals, Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

Year ended September 30,
202220212020
Revenue$317,862 $224,124 $150,134 
Operating expenses
Other costs of services73,367 57,706 47,230 
Selling general and administrative193,790 134,872 78,323 
Depreciation and amortization29,424 24,418 18,217 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration23,725 7,140 (1,409)
Total operating expenses320,306 224,136 142,361 
(Loss) income from operations(2,444)(12)7,773 
Other expenses
Interest expense, net14,775 9,799 8,926 
Other expense (income)991 (2,595)2,621 
Total other expenses15,766 7,204 11,547 
Loss before income taxes(18,210)(7,216)(3,774)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes5,007 623 (2,795)
Net loss(23,217)(7,839)(979)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest(6,115)(3,382)(560)
Net loss attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc.$(17,102)$(4,457)$(419)
Net loss per share attributable to Class A common stockholders:
Basic$(0.77)$(0.21)$(0.03)
Diluted$(0.77)$(0.22)$(0.03)
Weighted average shares of Class A common stock outstanding:
Basic22,249,656 20,994,598 14,833,378 
Diluted22,249,656 31,714,191 27,429,801 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
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i3 Verticals, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY