Document


 
Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
PROSPECTUS
Registration No. 333-231904
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4,491,763 Shares
Class A Common Stock
 
We are offering 4,491,763 shares of our Class A common stock. We will use the net proceeds from the offering to purchase (1) 1,000,000 Common Units (as defined herein) of i3 Verticals, LLC directly from i3 Verticals, LLC and (2) 3,491,763 Common Units (or 4,165,527 Common Units if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) and an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock (which shares will then be canceled) from certain of our Continuing Equity Owners (as defined herein), pursuant to exchange rights set forth in the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement (as defined herein). See Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions for a description of the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement. i3 Verticals, LLC will use all of the net proceeds it receives to repay indebtedness.
Our Class A common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”), under the symbol IIIV. The last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on Nasdaq on June 5, 2019 was $23.92 per share.
We are a holding company and our principal asset is Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC representing a 34.9% economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC as of March 31, 2019. The remaining 65.1% economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC is owned by the Continuing Equity Owners through ownership of Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC. Immediately following this offering and assuming no exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares, public stockholders (which excludes the Continuing Equity Owners) will collectively own 98.4% of the economic interest in i3 Verticals, Inc. and approximately 49.4% of its voting power. i3 Verticals, Inc. will own approximately 50.2% of the economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC. We are the sole managing member of i3 Verticals, LLC, operate and control all of the business and affairs of i3 Verticals, LLC and conduct our business through i3 Verticals, LLC and its subsidiaries.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public disclosure requirements for this prospectus and future filings. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
 
Investing in our Class A common stock involves risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 22.
 
Per Share
 
Total
Public offering price
$
22.75

 
$
102,187,608

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$
1.1375

 
$
5,109,380

Proceeds to us, before expenses
$
21.6125

 
$
97,078,228

(1)     We refer you to the section titled “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)” beginning on page 98 for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
We have granted to the underwriters an option to purchase up to 673,764 additional shares of Class A common stock, exercisable at any time until 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the disclosure in the prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock to purchasers on or about June 10, 2019.
Cowen
Raymond James
BofA Merrill Lynch
 
KeyBanc Capital Markets
 
 
D.A. Davidson & Co.
 
The date of this prospectus is June 5, 2019





TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or any information incorporated by reference herein or in any free writing prospectus that we may provide to you in connection with this offering. Neither we nor any of the underwriters has authorized anyone to provide you with information different from, or in addition to, that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or any such free writing prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We can provide no assurance as to the reliability of any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor any of the underwriters is making an offer to sell or seeking offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where or to any person to whom the offer or sale is not permitted. The information in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus, and the information in any free writing prospectus that we may provide you in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of such free writing prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.




PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained in greater detail elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus, “i3 Verticals,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer (1) before the Reorganization Transactions, as described in “Prospectus Summary—IPO and Reorganization Transactions,” to i3 Verticals, LLC and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries, and (2) after the Reorganization Transactions to i3 Verticals, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.
Our Company
Recognizing the convergence of software and payments, i3 Verticals was founded in 2012 with the purpose of delivering seamless integrated payment and software solutions to small- and medium-sized businesses (“SMBs”) and organizations in strategic vertical markets. Since commencing operations, we have built a broad suite of payment and software solutions that address the specific needs of SMBs and other organizations in our strategic vertical markets, and we believe our suite of solutions differentiates us from our competition. Our primary strategic vertical markets include education, public sector, non-profit, property management and healthcare. These vertical markets are large, growing and tend to have increasing levels of electronic payments adoption compared to other industries. In addition to our strategic vertical markets, we also have a growing presence in the business-to-business (“B2B”) payments market. Our executive management team has a proven track record of successfully building publicly-traded payments companies, generating growth both organically and through acquisitions. We processed approximately $11.9 billion in total payment volume in the twelve months ended March 31, 2019.
We distribute our payment technology and proprietary software solutions to our clients through our direct sales force as well as through a growing network of distribution partners, including independent software vendors (“ISVs”), value-added resellers (“VARs”), independent sales organizations (“ISOs”) and other referral partners, including financial institutions. Our ISV partners represent an important distribution channel and enable us to accelerate our market penetration through a cost effective one-to-many sales model that tends to result in high retention and faster growth. From September 30, 2016 to March 31, 2019, we increased our network of ISVs from 13 to 29, growing at a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 38%. From September 30, 2016 to March 31, 2019, our average monthly payment volume increased 223%. We believe this model is highly effective at reaching new potential clients.
Our integrated payment and software solutions feature embedded payment capabilities tailored to the specific needs of our clients in strategic vertical markets. Our configurable payment technology solutions are designed to integrate seamlessly into clients’ third-party business management systems, provide security that complies with Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (“PCI DSS”) and include extensive reporting tools. In addition to integrations with third party software, we deliver our own proprietary software solutions that are intended to increase the productivity of our clients by streamlining their business processes, particularly in the education, public sector and property management markets. We believe our proprietary software further differentiates us from our competitors in these strategic verticals and enables us to maximize our payment-related revenue. Through our proprietary gateway, we offer our clients a single point of access for a broad suite of payment and software solutions, enabling omni-channel point of sale (“POS”), spanning brick and mortar and electronic and mobile commerce, including app-based payments.
We primarily focus on strategic vertical markets where we believe we can be a leader in vertically-focused, integrated payment and software solutions. Our strategic vertical markets include:
Education—We assist schools in completing payment processing functions such as accepting payments for school lunches (online, at school, or at the POS) and school activities; selling products from the online student store while managing inventory; ticket sales while tracking attendance at athletic and other events; enabling parents and students to complete forms electronically; and enabling parents to make installment payments on higher-priced items.

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Public Sector—We assist public sector entities, including state governments, local municipalities and other publicly controlled enterprises, by efficiently collecting taxes, fines and certain fees; providing customer service responses to customer calls; and increasing the number of means available to make payments (online, in person or via mobile). We have products and solutions that create an efficient flow of information throughout government entities. We have a proprietary accounting platform that allows government entities to adhere to their fund accounting requirements. We also provide regulatory software and services for state licensing boards, such as pharmacy, nursing, medical examiners, and attorneys general, automating the processes for licensing applications, renewals, and payment processing.
Non-profit—We simplify the payment process for donations, charity auctions, church contributions and tickets to fundraising events, among others, empowering our clients to increase both their revenue and the time they devote to their core activities.
Property Management—We assist landlords and property managers in the rent collection process by providing centralized reporting for card and automated clearing house (“ACH”) payments, bank-level PCI DSS compliant security and solutions that integrate with third-party accounting software. Our property management solution is becoming a popular option in the fast-growing shared workspace industry in which we are differentiated from our competitors by enabling the acceptance of payments on an individual level.
Healthcare—We enable clients in our healthcare vertical to accept payments through mobile and POS solutions; to use consumer-facing payment devices that allow receptionists and clerical staff to focus their attention elsewhere; and to use revenue cycle management tools to help minimize the volume of accounts that they turn over to collection agencies.
We have a longer-term goal of being a leader in six to ten strategic vertical markets. We target vertical markets where businesses and organizations tend to lack integrated payment functionality within their business management systems and where we face less competition for our solutions. In many cases, we deliver our proprietary software solutions to strategic vertical markets through the payment facilitator (“PayFac”) model, where we:
enable superior data management by aggregating multiple small merchants under our “master” account, resulting in the collection and management of data not historically readily available;
streamline and simplify merchant onboarding, often resulting in client approval in minutes or hours rather than days or weeks; and
provide ease of reporting and reconciliation, allowing our clients to accept electronic payments in a faster, more convenient fashion.
As more ISVs seek to differentiate their offerings by seamlessly integrating payment functionality into their software solutions, the PayFac model has gained significant momentum. Before PayFacs were an option, any business looking to accept credit cards was required to establish an individual merchant account, which is often costly and time-consuming for small merchants.
In addition to our vertical markets, we have a growing presence in the B2B payments sector, where we provide value-added solutions that enhance card capabilities and provide improved payment processing technology that integrates with our clients' accounting systems.
We have a robust suite of proprietary technology solutions designed around horizontal and vertical market needs. This software suite includes multi-module software solutions within our education, public sector and property management verticals and our core technology platform (the “Burton Platform). A platform designed to be highly scalable, built for minimal downtime and high transaction volume, the Burton Platform brings together common components of our vertical software technologies as well as several historically disparate solutions. Key components of the Burton Platform include a robust suite of developer-friendly APIs that are designed to allow ISVs to easily integrate our payment processing capabilities (PayFac or traditional merchant processing) as well as some of the core capabilities of our vertical solutions.
An important part of our long-term strategy is acquisition-driven growth. Since our inception, we have completed eleven “platform” acquisitions and nineteen “tuck-in” acquisitions, including three “platform” and six “tuck-in” acquisitions since completing our IPO. Our platform acquisitions have opened new strategic vertical

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markets, broadened our technology and solutions suite and expanded our client base, while our tuck-in acquisitions have augmented our existing payment and software solutions and added clients. Our growth strategy is to continue to build our company through a disciplined combination of organic growth and growth through platform and tuck-in acquisitions.
We have built a deep and experienced executive-level management team. Greg Daily, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Clay Whitson, our Chief Financial Officer, have each previously served in similar roles with PMT Services, Inc. and iPayment, Inc. Our President, Rick Stanford, who is responsible for mergers and acquisitions, has a 30-year professional relationship with Mr. Daily and Mr. Whitson, including working together at PMT Services, Inc. Rob Bertke, our Chief Technology Officer, has over 20 years of experience in the payment technology and B2B commerce industries. Importantly, many of our acquisitions have added managers with extensive knowledge of their vertical markets and deep client relationships.
We generate revenue primarily, but not exclusively, from volume-based fees generated by payment processing services provided to clients throughout the United States. Our payment processing services enable clients to accept electronic payments, facilitating the exchange of funds and transaction data between clients, financial institutions and payment networks. Services include merchant onboarding, risk and underwriting, authorization, settlement, chargeback processing and other merchant support services. We also generate revenue from software licensing subscriptions, ongoing support, and other POS-related solutions that we provide to our clients directly and through our distribution partners. Due to our integrated payment and software solutions and our distribution network, we are able to derive significant scale from operating efficiencies, which enable us to generate strong operating margins and profitability.
For the six months ended March 31, 2019, we generated $170.3 million in revenue, $1.1 million of net income and $17.3 million of adjusted EBITDA, compared to $154.9 million in revenue, $7.2 million of net loss and $14.6 million of adjusted EBITDA for the comparable period in 2018, an increase of 10% and 19% for revenue and adjusted EBITDA, respectively. In fiscal year 2018, we generated $323.5 million in revenue, $5.0 million of net loss and $30.3 million of adjusted EBITDA, compared to $262.6 million in revenue, $0.9 million of net income and $19.3 million of adjusted EBITDA in fiscal year 2017, an increase of 23% and 58% for revenue and adjusted EBITDA, respectively. See “Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data” for a discussion of adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss) attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc., the most directly comparable measure under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Industry Background
Overview of the Electronic Payments Industry
The electronic payments industry is massive, with growth fueled by powerful long-term trends that continue to increase the acceptance and use of electronic-based payments compared to paper-based payments. The industry is serviced by a variety of providers, including issuers, payment networks and merchant acquirers. According to The Nilson Report, purchase volume on credit, debit and prepaid cards in the United States was approximately $6.1 trillion in 2018 and is estimated to reach nearly $10.4 trillion by 2027, a CAGR of 6.1%. Additionally, B2B payments represent a large, high growth opportunity, with Mastercard estimating annual global B2B payments volume to be approximately $120 trillion. Deloitte estimates the market to be growing at over 5% annually. Checks still account for more than 45% of supplier-related payments according to PayStream Advisors’ 2017 Electronic Payments Report, but electronic methods such as wire, electronic bank transfer and card continue to gain momentum. Technological advancement is driving faster adoption in several functional areas such as accounting, invoicing, enterprise resource planning and billing, and a 2018 Mastercard and PYMNTS.com joint report suggests that the B2B payments market is at a tipping point, with checks likely to relinquish the top spot as the most popular form of B2B payment in the near future.
Convergence of Payments, Software and Integrated Technology
The electronic payments industry is undergoing a transformation fueled by rapid advancements in technology over the past decade, including the proliferation of application programming interfaces (“APIs”) that facilitate seamless integration between various software programs and payment technology. This transformation is empowering businesses and organizations to benefit from the increased utility associated with embedding

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payment solutions within software. Increasingly, payment solutions are embedded within the software that merchants use for other critical business functions, such as POS, accounting, inventory management, cash drawer reconciliation, customer relationship management and order entry.
SMBs and other organizations are increasingly demanding bundled payment and software solutions. To deliver more value to clients, ISVs and payment companies are partnering to meet this demand, often entering into revenue sharing arrangements related to payment processing revenue. More recently, some ISVs are bundling proprietary payment capabilities with software offerings to create a comprehensive, integrated solution for clients and to optimize the revenue opportunity associated with payments.
As more ISVs seek to differentiate their offerings by seamlessly integrating payment capabilities into their software solutions, the PayFac model has gained significant momentum. The PayFac model provides companies not traditionally in the business of delivering payment services (e.g., ISVs) with a master merchant account, enabling SMB clients to accept electronic payments through a sub-merchant contract. In addition to rapid, efficient onboarding, PayFacs offer various tools and services, including streamlined reporting and client support.
Overview of the Traditional Merchant Acquiring Industry
Historically, to facilitate the acceptance of card-based payments at the POS, banks began providing payment services to their local merchants. Providers of these services, both divisions of banks and independent companies, became known as merchant acquirers. The merchant acquiring industry has grown significantly as more and more merchants and organizations accept card-based payments in response to their growing adoption by consumers. More than 3,500 payments service providers are registered with Visa in the United States. These acquirers include non-bank merchant acquirers, banks, ISOs and other less established vendors seeking to offer new payment methods and devices.
Overview of the Merchant Client Base
According to First Annapolis, there are over 27 million merchants in the United States that can potentially accept electronic payments at a POS. As shown in the following diagram, the majority of these merchants are SMBs:
Client Segmentation of the Merchant Acquiring Industry
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Source: First Annapolis; 2010 estimates
Many traditional merchant acquirers sell their payment processing services to various sizes of merchants and organizations, from SMBs to large enterprises. As potential customers, we believe SMBs have many attractive characteristics. SMBs generally lack the resources of large enterprises to invest heavily in technology and therefore are more dependent on service providers, such as merchant acquirers, to handle critical functions,

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including payment acceptance and other support services. Technology needs for SMBs are increasingly complex. As electronic and mobile commerce continues to grow as a percentage of purchase volume, businesses and organizations require additional capabilities to serve their customers in an increasingly omni-channel world. In addition, SMBs are seeking software solutions for a variety of their business functions, including marketing, inventory management, invoicing and other industry-specific applications. Merchant acquirers can better serve SMBs by working with ISVs or offering proprietary software that helps meet the requirements of these businesses and organizations. While the size of the market opportunity is considerable, the needs of potential clients in different segments vary significantly, benefiting those providers that deliver integrated payment solutions tailored to their specific needs.
Consolidation in Payments
Ongoing consolidation in the payments industry is being driven by a number of important factors, including the benefits of scale, merchant demand for integrated payment and software solutions and the desire to gain access to new, high-growth verticals, markets and geographies. A proven track record of identifying and executing attractive acquisitions is a differentiating factor in the highly competitive payments industry.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe we have many attributes that differentiate us from our competitors and provide us with significant competitive advantages. Our key competitive strengths include:
Innovative Payment and Software Solutions Tailored for Strategic Verticals
We believe our ability to deliver innovative payment and software solutions tailored to the specific needs of businesses and organizations in our strategic vertical markets differentiates us from our competitors. Our seamlessly integrated payment and software solutions can be used across multiple channels and industry verticals through our gateway and PayFac model and permit us to tailor our solutions to the specific needs of individual vertical markets. We focus on providing value-added, flexible, scalable and innovative electronic payment and software solutions to clients in attractive, high growth strategic vertical markets such as education, public sector, non-profit, property management and healthcare. We target vertical markets that are large and growing, where businesses and other organizations typically lack integrated payment functionality within their business management system, there is potential for significant market penetration of our solutions and competition for our solutions is fragmented. We have built, through strategic acquisitions and internal development, a specialized and tailored payment and software solutions business, powered by a broad network of distribution partners that allows us to integrate and cross-sell our solutions to businesses and organizations in these strategic vertical markets. We believe our deep domain knowledge in each of our strategic vertical markets provides us unique insight into our clients’ needs, and enables us to deliver high-quality traditional and PayFac solutions with vertical-specific client support.
Additionally, we provide a comprehensive suite of horizontal solutions that complement our vertically focused solutions and enable us to further penetrate each vertical market. Our horizontal solutions include virtual terminals, POS technology, mobile solutions, countertop and wireless terminals, electronic invoice presentment and payment, event registration, online reporting, expedited funding, PCI validation, integrated forms and client analytics.
Expertise in ISV Distribution
We distribute our payment technology and proprietary software solutions to our clients through our direct sales force as well as through a growing network of distribution partners, including ISVs. We embed our payment technology into our proprietary vertical software solutions, or into solutions developed by ISVs, empowering our clients to benefit from the seamless integration of payments and software. We currently have approximately 42 ISV distribution partners. Our ISV partner strategy represents an important distribution channel and enables us to accelerate our market penetration through a cost effective one-to-many distribution model that tends to result in high retention and faster growth. We sell our services to our ISV partners’ customer base, effectively broadening our target base. We consider our expertise in integrating our payment processing solutions into our distribution partners’ software to be a key competitive advantage that has enabled us to construct a highly diversified customer base with relatively high retention rates. We have also acquired ISVs in certain strategic vertical markets, which we believe further differentiates us from our competitors and improves our results of operations.

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Robust Gateway and Technology Platform Delivering Sophisticated Payment and Software Solutions
We have developed a suite of technology solutions that can be deployed on a variety of platforms. Our solutions include a range of traditional and innovative products, and our technology includes proprietary software that serves our verticals and offers a unified suite of APIs that provide streamlined payment integration. Our centralized development process, including more than 75 technology professionals, as well as our broad compatibility of our products permit us to quickly respond to changing market trends, which competitors who rely on third-party providers for their technological needs are less equipped to do. Our solutions provide redundancy, scalability, high availability and PCI Service Level Provider (SLP) Level 1 Security.
Through our proprietary gateway, we provide our clients a single point of access for a broad suite of payment and software solutions, spanning POS, e-commerce and mobile devices. This technology provides a broad range of Europay, Mastercard, Visa (EMV) and point-to-point-encryption (P2PE) devices as well as PCI avoidance solutions for ISVs. Leveraging our technology, we are able to provide our clients with solutions that are highly secure, scalable and available. In addition, our broad suite of payment and software solutions can evolve to meet the needs of our clients as their complexity, size or requirements change through sophisticated reporting and intelligence tools embedded within each client’s existing business management systems. In certain vertical markets such as education, public sector and property management, we offer proprietary software solutions that increase the productivity of our clients by streamlining their business processes. Our payment solutions, including PCI DSS-compliant security, integrate seamlessly into a client’s business management system and can be tailored to the client’s needs, with extensive reporting tools.
Attractive Operating Model
We have grown rapidly since our founding, with payment volume growth of 5.4% for the six months ended March 31, 2019 compared to the prior year period, 12.5% over the prior year in fiscal year 2018, 26.1% in fiscal year 2017, and 138.2% in fiscal year 2016. Our revenue from software has grown 92.0% for the six months ended March 31, 2019 compared to the prior year period, 126.6% over the prior year in fiscal year 2018, 37.6% in fiscal year 2017, and 66.3% in fiscal year 2016. We believe our domain expertise within our strategic vertical markets, the embedded nature of our integrated payment and proprietary software solutions and our strong client relationships drive year-over-year improvements in client retention and revenue growth. For example, our education vertical, where 100% of the payment volume we process is integrated into our proprietary software, had an annual client retention rate of 97% in fiscal year 2018 and our revenue per district increased 40% from fiscal year 2015 to 2018. We also have invested significantly in our software solutions to increase the usability, functionality and capacity of our integrated solutions, and with the continued growth of our business, we have been able to benefit from economies of scale. By leveraging our technology, we have grown our client portfolio at a rate exceeding our other non-processing expenses. The relationships we have developed with a significant number of distribution partners, including ISVs and VARs, contribute to efficient client acquisition, high retention and lifetime value and, ultimately, strong revenue and earnings growth. Given that we predominantly generate transaction-based revenue, we can confidently predict at the beginning of each fiscal year our recurring revenue and cash flow, excluding the effects of acquisitions, for that fiscal year. Further, we have a diversified operating model across multiple vertical markets, which insulates us from fluctuations within any given vertical market.
Proven Acquisition and Integration Strategy
A core component of our growth strategy includes a disciplined approach to acquisitions of companies and technology, evidenced by eleven platform acquisitions and nineteen tuck-in acquisitions since our inception in 2012, including three platform and six tuck-in acquisitions since completing our IPO. Our acquisitions have opened new strategic vertical markets, increased the number of businesses and organizations to whom we provide solutions and augmented our existing payment and software solutions and capabilities. Our management team has significant experience acquiring and integrating providers of payment processing services and providers of vertical market software that complement our existing suite of products and solutions. Due to our management team’s longstanding relationships and domain expertise, we have developed a strong pipeline of acquisition targets and are constantly evaluating businesses against our acquisition criteria.
Experienced Team with Strong Execution Track Record
We have built a deep and experienced executive-level management team. Greg Daily, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Clay Whitson, our Chief Financial Officer, have each previously served in similar

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roles with iPayment, Inc. and PMT Services, Inc. Our President, Rick Stanford, who is responsible for mergers and acquisitions, has a 30-year professional relationship with Mr. Daily and Mr. Whitson, including working together at PMT Services, Inc. Substantial value was created at both PMT Services, Inc. and iPayment, Inc. through organic and acquisition-based growth. From PMT Services’ IPO on August 12, 1994 until its sale on September 24, 1998, PMT Services’ cumulative stock return was 713%, compared to the 126% cumulative stock return of the S&P 500 during the same period, excluding dividends. From iPayment’s IPO on May 12, 2003 until it was taken private on May 10, 2006, iPayment’s cumulative stock return was 172%, compared to the 40% cumulative stock return of the S&P 500 during the same period, excluding dividends. There can be no assurance, however, that these executives will be able to create similar increases in the value of i3 Verticals, Inc. Rob Bertke, our Chief Technology Officer, has over 20 years of experience in the payment technology and B2B commerce industries.
Many of our acquisitions have added key members of management with extensive knowledge of their vertical markets and deep distribution partner and client relationships. We typically structure acquisitions with the goal of retaining and incentivizing key members of management, through equity incentives and earn-outs that align their interests with those of our shareholders.
Our Growth Strategy
Expand Our Network of Distribution Partners
We have experienced significant growth through our network of distribution partners, particularly within integrated channels. We have approximately 42 ISV distribution partners and intend to continue expanding our distribution network to reach new ISVs as well as other new partners within our strategic vertical markets. Further, we intend to expand into new verticals as our current distribution partners and clients expand their own businesses. We believe that our differentiated payments platform, combined with our vertical expertise, will enable us to methodically engage new distribution partners.
Continue to Enhance Our Suite of Technology Solutions
We intend to strengthen our position in our various vertical markets through continuous product innovation and enhancement. We have a strong track record of introducing new products and solutions that increase convenience, enhance ease of use, improve integration with their other business management systems and offer greater functionality. For example, we take advantage of our proprietary, integrated gateway and service capabilities to provide PayFac services in our strategic vertical markets. Through continued product innovation and enhancement, we believe we can increase client retention and improve our ability to win new business. Further, we will continue to invest in our technology and proprietary software that drives our competitiveness and position within our verticals.
Grow With Our Existing Distribution Partners and Clients
We focus on strategic vertical markets where there is a large addressable market, the client base is highly fragmented and penetration of electronic payments is below that of the overall economy. Our potential clients are in continual search of payment solutions and software to help them offer multiple value-added solutions and sell their goods and services through various channels to provide a convenient customer experience, increase sales and create business efficiencies. We intend to grow organically with our existing distribution partners by providing compelling integrated payment technology and proprietary software solutions to clients. We believe that by cross-selling new and value-added services and promoting our omni-channel capabilities to our existing clients, we will help our clients succeed and grow their payment volume. We believe a subset of our client base uses integrated payment solutions, and we intend to promote the adoption of these technologies.
Certain of our specific growth strategies include:
Cross-sell Opportunities: We provide our distribution partners with the opportunity to market new products as they become available, making available new content that enhances the value of our distribution partners to their members.
Event Participation: We identify opportunities to engage with clients through event participation, including by sponsoring luncheons, attending tradeshows, and presenting at user conferences.

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Electronic Marketing: Our marketing team utilizes a variety of marketing techniques to enhance the awareness of our offerings to the distribution partner network, which align with our outbound sales effort and are intended to monitor the level of client engagement.
Content Development: Our sales and marketing team partners with our distribution network to identify key topics of interest to their members, and we intend to continue work to craft new content covering popular topics related to the electronic payment industry.
Incentive Programs: Our sales and marketing team works directly with our distribution partners to launch incentive programs intended to increase new referral activity through a variety of competitions and programs implemented each year.
Further Penetrate the Installed Merchant Base of Our Distribution Partners
We intend to continue to actively pursue the merchant base of our distribution partners. A significant number of businesses and other organizations within these channels are not currently using our solutions and have not yet been proactively approached or have not faced a reason to switch providers, such as contract expiration or a customer service issue. Many already have their electronic payments processed through another provider, while others are not yet accepting electronic payments. We intend to continue to capitalize on this significant opportunity by leveraging our relationships with our distribution partners, our extensive marketing capabilities, our vertically-focused sales force and our innovative payment technology. This focus allows us to expand within these markets and benefit from our clients’ organic growth.
Selectively Pursue Platform and Tuck-in Acquisitions
We intend to pursue platform acquisitions of vertically-focused integrated payment and software solution providers in new vertical markets. We also intend to continue to complement our organic expansion with accretive tuck-in acquisitions that enhance our market position within our existing strategic vertical markets. We expect that these acquisitions will expand our integrated platform, existing payment and software solutions and client reach. Since our formation in 2012, we have completed a total of eleven platform and nineteen tuck-in acquisitions that enabled us to enter new, or expand within existing, vertical markets. Since our IPO, we have completed three platform and six tuck-in acquisitions. We believe that we have demonstrated the ability to execute and integrate acquisitions that augment our products and services and enhance the solution set we offer to our clients.
We intend to continue to acquire targets through our strong pipeline, in addition to engaging new candidates. We target companies that have a strong management team with significant expertise in a particular vertical market and that offer attractive growth potential. Once we have completed an acquisition, we monitor the acquired company’s performance and seek to improve its operations. Our corporate structure enables us to provide financial and strategic support, including capital, recruitment, back-office and IT functions to the companies we acquire. This decentralized management structure allows us to create management teams positioned to maximize the growth potential in existing and new vertical markets.
Recent Developments
Acquisition of Pace Payment Systems, Inc.
On May 31, 2019, we, indirectly through one of our wholly owned subsidiaries, acquired Pace Payment Systems, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Pace”), pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Pace Acquisition”). Pace is engaged in the business of marketing, distributing and selling payment processing products (including software products) and services, including through integrated partnerships in the public and education sectors. The purchase price consisted of $52.5 million in cash consideration paid at closing, subject to certain pre- and post-closing net working capital adjustments, $0.2 million of restricted shares of our Class A common stock and potential additional consideration of up to $20.0 million to be paid based upon the achievement of certain growth metrics related to the financial performance of Pace in the 24 months from January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021. The portion of the purchase price paid at closing was funded with proceeds under our revolving credit facility. For the year ended December 31, 2018 and for the three months ended March 31, 2019, Pace had revenue of $29.0 million and $7.4 million, respectively. From December 31, 2016 to May 31, 2019, Pace increased its active ISV network from 3 to 13.

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Risk Factors
We are subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and prospects. You should carefully consider these risks, including the risks described under the heading, “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock. Risks relating to our business include, among others:
our ability to generate revenue sufficient to maintain profitability and positive cash flow;
competition in our industry and our ability to compete effectively;
our dependence on non-exclusive distribution partners to market our products and services;
our ability to keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry and provide new products and services;
liability and reputation damage from unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services;
technical, operational and regulatory risks related to our information technology systems and third-party providers’ systems;
reliance on third parties for significant services;
exposure to economic conditions and political risks affecting consumer and commercial spending, including the use of credit cards;
our ability to increase our existing vertical markets, expand into new vertical markets and execute our growth strategy;
our ability to successfully identify acquisition targets and thereafter, to complete and effectively integrate those acquisitions into our services;
potential degradation of the quality of our products, services and support;
our ability to retain clients, many of which are SMBs, which can be difficult and costly to retain;
our ability to successfully manage our intellectual property;
our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop key personnel and qualified employees;
risks related to laws, regulations and industry standards;
our indebtedness and potential increases in our indebtedness; and
operating and financial restrictions imposed by our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility (as defined below).
IPO and Reorganization Transactions
On June 25, 2018, we completed the initial public offering (“IPO”) of 7,647,500 shares of our Class A common stock at a public offering price of $13.00 per share. We received approximately $92.5 million of net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, which we used to purchase 7,264,083 newly issued common units from i3 Verticals, LLC (“Common Units”) for approximately $87.8 million, and 383,417 Common Units from a selling Common Unit holder for approximately $4.6 million, in each case at a price per Common Unit equal to the price per share paid by the underwriters for shares of our Class A common stock in the IPO.
In connection with our IPO, we consummated the following reorganizational transactions. Certain defined terms are provided below.
We amended and restated the existing limited liability company agreement of i3 Verticals, LLC to, among other things, (1) convert all existing Class A units, common units (including common units issued upon the exercise of existing warrants held by the existing Warrant Holders) and Class P units (“profits interests”) of ownership interest in i3 Verticals, LLC into either Class A voting common units of i3 Verticals, LLC (such holders of Class A voting common units referred to herein as the “Continuing Equity Owners”) or Class B non-voting common units of i3 Verticals, LLC (such holders of Class B non-voting common units referred to herein as the “Former Equity Owners”) (collectively, the “Initial Recapitalization”), and (2) appoint i3 Verticals, Inc. as the sole managing member of i3 Verticals, LLC upon its acquisition of Common Units in connection with the IPO.

9



We amended and restated i3 Verticals, Inc.’s certificate of incorporation to provide for, among other things, Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Each share of Class A common stock and Class B common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters to be voted on by stockholders. Shares of our Class B common stock, however, may be held only by the Continuing Equity Owners and their permitted transferees in proportion to the number of outstanding Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC they hold as described in “Description of Capital Stock—Class B Common Stock.” Class B common stock has no economic rights.
Immediately following the Initial Recapitalization, we consummated a merger by and among i3 Verticals, LLC, i3 Verticals, Inc. and a newly formed wholly-owned subsidiary of i3 Verticals, Inc. (“MergerSub”) whereby: (1) MergerSub merged with and into i3 Verticals, LLC, with i3 Verticals, LLC as the surviving entity; (2) Class A voting common units converted into newly issued Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC together with an equal number of shares of Class B common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc., and (3) Class B non-voting common units converted into Class A common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc. based on a conversion ratio that provided an equitable adjustment to reflect the full value of the Class B non-voting common units.
We issued 619,542 shares of our Class A common stock pursuant to a voluntary private conversion of certain subordinated notes (the “Junior Subordinated Notes”) by certain related and unrelated creditors of i3 Verticals, LLC. In this conversion, certain eligible holders of Junior Subordinated Notes elected to convert approximately $8.1 million in aggregate indebtedness into Class A common stock.
We issued 7,647,500 shares of our Class A common stock to the purchasers in the IPO in exchange for net proceeds of approximately $92.5 million.
We used all of the net proceeds from the IPO to purchase (1) 7,264,083 newly issued Common Units directly from i3 Verticals, LLC, and (2) 383,417 Common Units directly from a Continuing Equity Owner, in each case at a price per Common Unit equal to the price per share paid by the underwriters for shares of our Class A common stock in the IPO.
i3 Verticals, LLC used the IPO net proceeds from the sale of Common Units to i3 Verticals, Inc., after deducting offering expenses, to repay a total of approximately $84.9 million in outstanding debt under (a) the Junior Subordinated Notes in the aggregate principal amount outstanding of $8.1 million, (b) notes payable in the aggregate principal amount of $10.5 million (the “Mezzanine Notes”) to three related creditors and (c) the existing senior secured credit facility of i3 Verticals, LLC (the “2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility”), which included a term loan and a revolving loan facility, in the aggregate principal amount of $66.3 million. i3 Verticals, LLC repaid the Junior Subordinated Notes and the Mezzanine Notes in full in connection with the IPO.
i3 Verticals, Inc. entered into (1) a tax receivable agreement, which we refer to as the Tax Receivable Agreement, with i3 Verticals, LLC and each of the Continuing Equity Owners and (2) a registration rights agreement, which we refer to as the Registration Rights Agreement, with certain Continuing Equity Owners. For a description of the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement and the Registration Rights Agreement, see “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.”
We collectively refer to the foregoing organizational transactions as the “Reorganization Transactions.”
Following the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, the Company became a holding company and its principal asset is the Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC that it owns. i3 Verticals, Inc. operates and controls all of i3 Verticals, LLC's operations and, through i3 Verticals, LLC and its subsidiaries, conducts i3 Verticals, LLC's business.
As of March 31, 2019, i3 Verticals, Inc. owned 34.9% of the economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC.
As of March 31, 2019, the Continuing Equity Owners owned Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC representing approximately 65.1% of the economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC, shares of Class A common stock in the Company representing approximately 0.9% of the economic interest and voting power in the Company, and shares of Class B common stock in i3 Verticals, Inc., representing approximately 65.1% of the voting power in the Company.
The Continuing Equity Owners who own Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC may redeem at each of their options (subject in certain circumstances to time-based vesting requirements) their Common Units for, at the election of i3 Verticals, LLC, cash or newly-issued shares of the Company's Class A common stock.

10



Combining the Class A common stock and Class B common stock, the Continuing Equity Owners hold approximately 66.0% of the economic interest and voting power in i3 Verticals, Inc.
As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to:
“Continuing Equity Owners” refers collectively to the Class A unit, common unit and Class P unit holders prior to the Reorganization Transactions, and each of their permitted transferees that own Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC after the Reorganization Transactions and IPO and who may redeem at each of their options their Common Units for, at the election of i3 Verticals, LLC, cash or newly-issued shares of our Class A common stock as described in “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—i3 Verticals LLC Agreement.”
“i3 Verticals LLC Agreement” refers to i3 Verticals, LLC’s Limited Liability Company Agreement, which became effective in connection with the IPO.
“Former Equity Owners” refers to the Original Equity Owners that are not Continuing Equity Owners and whose ownership interest converted into shares of our Class A common stock in connection with the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions.
“Original Equity Owners” refers to the owners of ownership interests in i3 Verticals, LLC, collectively, before the Reorganization Transactions, which included the holders of Class A units, common units, Class P units (vested and unvested) and Warrant Holders.
“Warrant Holders” refers to lenders under our existing Junior Subordinated Notes and Mezzanine Notes that held warrants to purchase Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC that were exercised in full in connection with the IPO.

11



Ownership Structure
The diagram below depicts our organizational structure immediately following this offering and the use of proceeds therefrom assuming, assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares.
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12952465&doc=3
Our Corporate Information
i3 Verticals, Inc., the issuer of the Class A common stock in this offering, was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on January 17, 2018. i3 Verticals, LLC (formerly known as Charge Payment, LLC) was organized as a Delaware limited liability company on September 7, 2012. Our corporate headquarters are located at 40 Burton Hills Blvd., Suite 415, Nashville, TN 37215. Our telephone number is (615) 465-4487, and our principal website address is www.i3verticals.com. The information on any of our websites is deemed not to be incorporated in this prospectus or to be part of this prospectus.
i3 Verticals, Inc. is a holding company whose principal asset consists, as of May 31, 2019, of its ownership of 35.1% of the outstanding Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC.

12



Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the “JOBS Act.” An emerging growth company may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As a result, the information that we provide to stockholders may be different than the information you may receive from other public companies in which you hold equity. For example, so long as we are an emerging growth company:
we are not required to engage an auditor to report on our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
we are not required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);
we are not required to submit certain executive compensation matters to stockholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency” and “say-on-golden parachutes”; and
we are not required to comply with certain disclosure requirements related to executive compensation, such as the requirement to disclose the correlation between executive compensation and performance and the requirement to present a comparison of our Chief Executive Officer’s compensation to our median employee compensation.
We may take advantage of these reduced disclosure and other requirements until September 30, 2023, the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our IPO, or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. For example, if certain events occur before the end of such five-year period, including if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company.
As mentioned above, the JOBS Act permits us, as an emerging growth company, to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected not to opt out of the extended transition period which means that when an accounting standard is issued or revised, and it has different application dates for public or private companies, as an emerging growth company, we can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make it difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used to compare our financial statements with the financial statements of a public company that is not an emerging growth company, or the financial statements of an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period.
Conflicts of Interest
An affiliate of BofA Securities, Inc., an underwriter in this offering, is a joint lead arranger and joint bookrunner and lender under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility, and, therefore, in connection with the refinancing, will receive at least 5% of the net proceeds of this offering, not including underwriting compensation. As a result, BofA Securities, Inc. is deemed to have a “conflict of interest” within the meaning of FINRA Rule 5121. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

13



The Offering
Class A common stock offered
4,491,763 shares
 
 
Option to purchase additional shares
673,764 shares
 
 
Class A common stock to be outstanding after this offering
13,717,592 shares, representing approximately 50.2% of the combined voting power of all of the common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc. (or 14,391,356 shares, representing approximately 52.7% of the combined voting power of all of the common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc. if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) and 100% of the economic interest in i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
 
Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering
13,595,401 shares, representing approximately 49.8% of the combined voting power of all of the common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc. (or 12,921,637 shares, representing approximately 47.3% of the combined voting power of all of the common stock of i3 Verticals, Inc. if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) and no economic interest in i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
 
Use of proceeds
We estimate, based on an offering price of $22.75 per share, that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately $97.1 million, or approximately $111.6 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions but before offering expenses.
We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to purchase (1) 1,000,000 Common Units directly from i3 Verticals, LLC, and (2) 3,491,763 Common Units (or 4,165,527 Common Units if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) from certain Continuing Equity Owners, in each case at a price per Common Unit equal to the price per share paid by the underwriters for shares of our Class A common stock in this offering. i3 Verticals, LLC will receive an estimated $20.9 million in net proceeds from the sale of Common Units to i3 Verticals, Inc., after deducting estimated offering expenses of $0.7 million.
i3 Verticals, LLC intends to use all the net proceeds it receives to repay indebtedness outstanding under the 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility. See “Use of Proceeds.”
 
 
Voting rights
Each share of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters to be voted on by stockholders. Holders of Class A common stock and holders of Class B common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters presented to stockholders for their vote or approval, except as otherwise required by law or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Class B common stock has no economic rights. See “Description of Capital Stock.”
 
 

14



Ratio of shares of Class A common stock to Common Units
The i3 Verticals LLC Agreement requires that we at all times maintain (x) a one-to-one ratio between the number of shares of Class A common stock issued by us and the number of Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC owned by us and (y) a one-to-one ratio between the number of shares of Class B common stock owned by the Continuing Equity Owners and the number of Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC owned by the Continuing Equity Owners. This construct is intended to result in the Continuing Equity Owners having a voting interest in us that is identical to the Continuing Equity Owners’ percentage economic interest in i3 Verticals, LLC. The Continuing Equity Owners own all of our outstanding Class B common stock.
 
 
Exchange and redemption rights of holders of Common Units
Pursuant to the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement, the Continuing Equity Owners may require us to exchange or redeem all or a portion of their Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC for newly issued shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, or, at the discretion of i3 Verticals, LLC, cash. Shares of our Class B common stock will be canceled on a one-for-one basis if we, at the election of a Continuing Equity Owner, exchange or redeem Common Units of such Continuing Equity Owner pursuant to the terms of the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement. The decision whether to tender Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC to us will be made solely at the discretion of the Continuing Equity Owners. i3 Verticals, LLC will exercise discretion regarding the form of consideration in an exchange or redemption.
 
 
Tax Receivable Agreement
Our acquisition of Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC in connection with the IPO and this offering and future and certain concurrent redemptions and exchanges of Common Units for shares of our Class A common stock (or cash) are expected to produce favorable tax attributes for us. We are a party to a Tax Receivable Agreement with the Continuing Equity Owners that provides that we generally will be required to pay directly, or indirectly through i3 Verticals, LLC, to our Continuing Equity Owners 85% of the applicable cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal and state income tax that we are deemed to realize as a result of certain tax attributes of their Common Units sold to us (or exchanged in a taxable sale) and that are created as a result of (i) the redemption or exchange of their Common Units for shares of Class A common stock and (ii) tax benefits attributable to payments made under the Tax Receivable Agreement (including imputed interest).
 
 
Dividend policy
We do not expect to pay any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. See “Dividend Policy.”
 
 
Risk factors
You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus beginning on page 22 and incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our Class A common stock.
 
 
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol
IIIV.

15



Unless we indicate otherwise or the context otherwise requires, information in this prospectus:
excludes 4,552,873 shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, or “2018 Plan,” including 4,346,965 shares of Class A common stock issuable pursuant to 4,338,166 stock options and 8,799 restricted shares of Class A common stock granted to certain of our directors, consultants and employees;
excludes additional shares of Class A common stock that may be issuable upon exercise, redemption or exchange by the Continuing Equity Owners (or at our election, a direct exchange), other than the Class A common stock that we intend to issue in connection with this offering; and
assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares.
Trademarks
This prospectus includes our service marks and trade names, including i3 Verticals®, PaySchools® and Axia®, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws and are our property. This prospectus also contains trademarks, trade names and service marks of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ®, ™ or SM symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. We do not intend our use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties.
Market and Industry Data
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry, competitive position and the markets in which we operate is based on information from independent industry and research organizations, other third-party sources and management estimates. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information released by independent industry analysts and other third-party sources, as well as data from our internal research, and are based on assumptions we made upon reviewing such data, and our experience in, and knowledge of, such industry and markets, which we believe to be reasonable. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of the future performance of the industry in which we operate and our future performance are necessarily subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and elsewhere in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

16



SUMMARY HISTORICAL AND PRO FORMA CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
The following tables present the summary and unaudited pro forma historical consolidated financial and other data of i3 Verticals, LLC and i3 Verticals, Inc. as of the dates and for the periods indicated. i3 Verticals, LLC is the predecessor of the issuer, i3 Verticals, Inc., for financial reporting purposes. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018, 2017 and 2016, and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2018 and 2017 are derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of i3 Verticals, Inc. included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on December 7, 2018 (the “2018 10-K”) and incorporated by reference. The summary unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 and the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2019 are derived from unaudited interim condensed consolidated balance sheets included in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 that we filed with the SEC on May 14, 2019 (“Quarterly Report”) and incorporated by reference into this prospectus. The summary unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the twelve months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 are derived from management’s records. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, and the condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the twelve months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the unaudited interim condensed consolidated balance sheets and the condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the twelve months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018.
The results of operations for the periods presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. The information set forth below should be read together with the “Selected Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included in our 2018 10-K, and under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the unaudited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes in our Quarterly Report.
The summary unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial data of i3 Verticals, Inc. presented below have been derived from our unaudited condensed pro forma consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary condensed unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data as of and for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 give effect to the Reorganization Transactions, the IPO, the Pace Acquisition and this offering and the use of proceeds described in “Use of Proceeds,” as if all such transactions had occurred on October 1, 2017, with respect to the summary unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statement of operations, and as of March 31, 2019, with respect to the summary unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet. The unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial information includes various estimates which are subject to material change and may not be indicative of what our operations or financial position would have been had this offering and related transactions taken place on the dates indicated, or that may be expected to occur in the future. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information” for a complete description of the adjustments and assumptions underlying the summary unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data.

17



 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals, Inc.
Six months ended March 31,
 
Year ended September 30,
 
Twelve months ended March 31,
(in thousands except for payment volume which is in millions)
Six months ended March 31, 2019
 
Year ended September 30, 2018
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2019
 
2018
(unaudited)
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Statement of Operations Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
184,605

 
$
352,486

 
$
170,262

 
$
154,920

 
$
323,508

 
$
262,571

 
$
199,644

 
$
338,850

 
$
293,025

Interchange and network fees
110,514

 
214,543

 
110,514

 
102,872

 
214,543

 
189,112

 
140,998

 
222,185

 
202,868

Other costs of services
32,070

 
64,689

 
19,983

 
19,058

 
40,314

 
28,798

 
21,934

 
41,239

 
34,241

Selling, general and administrative
28,606

 
45,618

 
26,835

 
19,041

 
40,585

 
27,194

 
20,393

 
48,379

 
33,299

Depreciation and amortization
8,310

 
13,441

 
7,450

 
5,876

 
11,839

 
10,085

 
9,898

 
13,413

 
10,890

Change in fair value of contingent consideration
2,153

 
3,866

 
2,153

 
2,129

 
3,866

 
(218
)
 
2,458

 
3,890

 
988

Total other expenses
2,868

 
13,985

 
2,069

 
13,251

 
16,985

 
6,521

 
5,813

 
5,803

 
16,529

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
20

 
(645
)
 
129

 
(139
)
 
337

 
177

 
243

 
605

 
108

Net income (loss)
$
64

 
$
(3,011
)
 
$
1,129

 
$
(7,168
)
 
$
(4,961
)
 
$
902

 
$
(2,093
)
 
$
3,336

 
$
(5,898
)
Other Financial Data (unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Payment volume(1)
$
5,887

 
$
11,555

 
$
5,887

 
$
5,586

 
$
11,555

 
$
10,269

 
$
8,143

 
$
11,855

 
$
10,984

Net revenue(2)
$
75,361

 
$
137,943

 
$
61,018

 
$
52,048

 
$
108,965

 
$
73,459

 
$
58,646

 
$
117,935

 
$
90,157

Adjusted net income(2)
$
10,458

 
$
18,262

 
$
10,786

 
$
6,579

 
$
15,350

 
$
7,774

 
$
7,708

 
$
19,557

 
$
10,716

Adjusted EBITDA(2)
$
17,810

 
$
31,275

 
$
17,325

 
$
14,561

 
$
30,348

 
$
19,264

 
$
17,606

 
$
33,112

 
$
24,748

Selling, general and administrative  Corporate(3)
$
7,856

 
$
11,049

 
$
7,856

 
$
4,402

 
$
9,692

 
$
6,142

 
$
4,991

 
$
13,146

 
$
7,637

 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
 
March 31,
 
September 30,
 
2019
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data (at end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$

 
$
1,393

 
$
572

 
$
955

Total assets
300,066

 
218,499

 
175,142

 
139,991

Long-term debt, including current portion, and debt issuance costs, net
107,850

 
75,241

 
36,776

 
110,836

Total liabilities
175,724

 
103,764

 
62,944

 
129,122

Total equity
124,342

 
114,735

 
112,198

 
3,146

__________________________
(1)
Payment volume is the net dollar value of both 1) Visa, Mastercard and other payment network transactions processed by our clients and settled to clients by us and 2) ACH transactions processed by our clients and settled to clients by us.
(2)
Net revenue is calculated as revenue less certain network fees and other costs described below. Adjusted net income is calculated as net income before certain non-cash changes in the fair value of contingent consideration, non-cash changes in the fair value of warrant liabilities, other non-core cash items and the other items described below. Adjusted EBITDA is equal to adjusted net income before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization. Net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA eliminate the effects of items that we do not consider indicative of our core operating performance. As a result, we consider net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA to be important indicators of our operational strength and the performance of our business. Management believes the use of net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA is appropriate to provide investors with an additional tool to evaluate the Company's ongoing business platform. By providing these non-GAAP financial measures, together with a reconciliation to GAAP results, we believe we are enhancing investors’ understanding of our business and our results of operations, as well as assisting investors in evaluating how well we are executing our business strategies. We believe investors use net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA as supplemental measures to evaluate the overall operating performance of companies in our industry. The way we present net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
(3)
Selling, general and administrative — Corporate, is included in overall selling, general and administrative expenses above.

18



Net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA are not intended as alternatives to revenue or net income (loss), as applicable, as indicators of our operating performance, or as alternatives to any other measure of performance in conformity with GAAP. You should therefore not place undue reliance on net revenue, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA or ratios calculated using those measures. Our GAAP-based measures can be found in our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. In particular, adjusted EBITDA has significant limitations as an analytical tool because it excludes certain material costs. For example, it does not include interest expense, which has been a necessary element of our costs. In addition, the exclusion of amortization expense associated with our intangible assets further limits the usefulness of this measure. Because adjusted EBITDA does not account for these expenses, its utility as a measure of our operating performance has material limitations. Accordingly, management does not view adjusted EBITDA in isolation and also uses other measures, such as cost of services and goods and net income (loss) to measure operating performance.
The reconciliation of our revenues to net revenue is as follows:
 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
Six months ended March 31,
 
Year ended September 30,
 
Twelve months ended March 31,
 
Six months ended March 31, 2019
 
Year ended September 30, 2018
 
(in thousands)
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2019
 
2018
Revenue
$
184,605

 
$
352,486

 
$
170,262

 
$
154,920

 
$
323,508

 
$
262,571

 
$
199,644

 
$
338,850

 
$
293,025

Acquisition revenue adjustments(a)
1,270

 

 
1,270

 

 

 

 

 
1,270

 

Interchange and network fees
(110,514
)
 
(214,543
)
 
(110,514
)
 
(102,872
)
 
(214,543
)
 
(189,112
)
 
(140,998
)
 
(222,185
)
 
(202,868
)
Net Revenue
$
75,361

 
$
137,943

 
$
61,018

 
$
52,048

 
$
108,965

 
$
73,459

 
$
58,646

 
$
117,935

 
$
90,157

_________________________
(a)
Under GAAP, companies must adjust, as necessary, beginning balances of acquired deferred revenue to fair value as part of acquisition accounting as defined by GAAP. Acquisition revenue adjustments remove the effect of these adjustments to acquisition date fair value from acquisitions that impact the respective periods.

19



The reconciliation of our net (loss) income attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc. to Non-GAAP adjusted income before taxes, adjusted net income and adjusted EBITDA is as follows:
 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
Six months ended March 31,
 
Year ended September 30,
 
Twelve months ended March 31,
 
Six months ended March 31, 2019
 
Year ended September 30, 2018
 
(in thousands)
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2019
 
2018
Net income (loss) attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc.
$
22

 
$
(1,176
)
 
$
(924
)
 
$
(7,168
)
 
$
(6,898
)
 
$
902

 
$
(2,093
)
 
$
(654
)
 
$
(5,898
)
Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest
42

 
(1,835
)
 
2,053

 

 
1,937

 

 

 
3,990

 

Non-GAAP Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
20

 
(645
)
 
129

 
(139
)
 
337

 
177

 
243

 
605

 
108

Offering-related expenses(a)

 
124

 

 
124

 
124

 

 

 

 
124

Non-cash change in fair value of contingent consideration(b)
2,153

 
3,866

 
2,153

 
2,129

 
3,866

 
(218
)
 
2,458

 
3,890

 
988

Non-cash change in fair value of warrant liability(c)

 
8,487

 

 
8,245

 
8,487

 
(415
)
 
(28
)
 
242

 
7,830

Share-based compensation(d)
2,314

 
2,924

 
2,314

 

 
1,567

 

 

 
3,881

 

Acquisition revenue adjustments(e)
1,270

 

 
1,270

 

 

 

 

 
1,270

 

Acquisition-related expenses(f)
621

 
531

 
621

 
447

 
531

 
766

 
1,217

 
705

 
937

Acquisition intangible amortization(g)
6,847

 
10,857

 
6,110

 
4,630

 
9,384

 
7,669

 
8,027

 
10,864

 
8,433

Non-cash interest(h)
465

 
1,156

 
465

 
465

 
1,072

 
453

 
443

 
1,072

 
698

Other taxes(i)
190

 
60

 
190

 
41

 
60

 
36

 
11

 
209

 
75

Legal settlement(j)

 

 

 

 

 
995

 

 

 
995

Non-GAAP adjusted income before income taxes
$
13,944

 
$
24,349

 
$
14,381

 
$
8,774

 
$
20,467

 
$
10,365

 
$
10,278

 
$
26,074

 
$
14,290

Adjusted income taxes at effective rate(k)
(3,486
)
 
(6,087
)
 
(3,595
)
 
(2,195
)
 
(5,117
)
 
(2,591
)
 
(2,570
)
 
(6,517
)
 
(3,574
)
Adjusted net income
$
10,458

 
$
18,262

 
$
10,786

 
$
6,579

 
$
15,350

 
$
7,774

 
$
7,708

 
$
19,557

 
$
10,716

Plus:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash interest expense, net(l)
2,403

 
4,342

 
1,604

 
4,541

 
7,426

 
6,483

 
5,457

 
4,489

 
8,001

Adjusted income taxes at effective rate(k)
3,486

 
6,087

 
3,595

 
2,195

 
5,117

 
2,591

 
2,570

 
6,517

 
3,574

Depreciation and internally developed software amortization(m)
1,463

 
2,584

 
1,340

 
1,246

 
2,455

 
2,416

 
1,871

 
2,549

 
2,457

Adjusted EBITDA
$
17,810

 
$
31,275

 
$
17,325

 
$
14,561

 
$
30,348

 
$
19,264

 
$
17,606

 
$
33,112

 
$
24,748

__________________________
(a)
Includes costs associated with forming i3 Verticals, Inc. and other expenses directly related to certain transactions as part of any offering.
(b)
Non-cash change in fair value of contingent consideration reflects the changes in management’s estimates of future cash consideration to be paid in connection with prior acquisitions from the amount estimated as of the later of the most recent balance sheet date forming the beginning of the income statement period or the original estimates made at the closing of the applicable acquisition.
(c)
Non-cash change in warrant liability reflects the fair value change in certain warrants for the Company's Common Units associated with the Company's mezzanine notes in the aggregate principal amount of $10.5 million. These warrants are accounted for as liabilities on the Company's consolidated balance sheets and were repaid with proceeds from its IPO.
(d)
Equity based compensation expense related to stock options issued under the Company’s 2018 Equity Incentive Plan. In addition, during the pro forma year ended September 30, 2018, the year ended September 30, 2018 and the twelve months ended March 31, 2019, compensation expense included $741,000 related to tax receivables agreement (TRA) non-participation compensatory shares.
(e)
Under GAAP, companies must adjust, as necessary, beginning balances of acquired deferred revenue to fair value as part of acquisition accounting as defined by GAAP. Acquisition revenue adjustments remove the effect of these adjustments to acquisition date fair value from acquisitions that have closed as of the date of this prospectus.
(f)
Acquisition-related expenses are the professional service and related costs directly related to the Company's acquisitions and are not part of its core performance.
(g)
Acquisition intangible amortization reflects amortization of intangible assets and software acquired through business combinations, acquired customer portfolios, acquired referral agreements and related asset acquisitions.
(h)
Non-cash interest expense reflects amortization of deferred financing costs.
(i)
Other taxes consist of franchise taxes, commercial activity taxes and other non-income-based taxes. Taxes related to salaries or employment are not included.

20



(j)
Legal settlement is a charge from certain legal proceedings. For additional information, see “Business—Legal Proceedings” in our 2018 10-K incorporated by reference herein.
(k)
Adjusted corporate income tax expense is calculated considering the 2018 Tax Reform Act by applying a 25.0% blended federal and state tax rate to Non-GAAP adjusted income before taxes. GAAP corporate income tax expense (benefit) as a percentage of pre-tax net income, i.e., the effective tax rate, was 23.8% for the pro forma six months ended March 31, 2019; 17.6% for the pro forma year ended September 30, 2018; 10.3% and 1.9% for the six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively; (7.3)%, 16.4% and (13.1)% for the years ended September 30, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and 15.4% and (1.9)% for the twelve months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(l)
Cash interest expense, net represents all interest expense recorded on the Company's statement of operations other than non-cash interest expense, which represents amortization of deferred financing costs.
(m)
Depreciation and internally developed software amortization reflects depreciation on the Company's property, plant and equipment, net, and amortization expense on its internally developed capitalized software.

21



RISK FACTORS
An investment in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained in this prospectus before deciding whether to invest in our Class A common stock. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment in our Class A common stock. Some statements in this prospectus, including such statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. See the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have a history of operating losses and will need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow and to continue our acquisition program.
Since inception in 2012, we have been engaged in growth activities and have made a significant number of acquisitions that grew our business. This acquisition activity requires substantial capital and other expenditures. As a result, 2017 was the first fiscal year for which we attained profitability, and we incurred a net loss attributable to i3 Verticals, Inc. of $5.0 million in fiscal year 2018 and $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019. We may incur losses again in the future. A substantial portion of our historical revenue growth has resulted from acquisitions. For the year ended September 30, 2018, revenues attributable to the acquisitions we completed in 2017 and 2018 were $67.6 million, or 20.9% of our total revenues. We expect our cash needs to increase significantly for the next several years as we:
make additional acquisitions;
market our products and services;
expand our client support and service operations;
hire additional marketing, client support and administrative personnel; and
implement new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls.
As a result of these continuing costs and expenses, we need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow. To date, our operations have been supported by equity and debt financings. If we do not continue to increase our revenues, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
The payment processing industry is highly competitive. Such competition could adversely affect the fees we receive, and as a result, our margins, business, financial condition and results of operations.
The market for payment processing services is highly competitive and has relatively low barriers to entry. Other providers of payment processing services have established a sizable market share in the merchant acquiring sector and service more clients than we do. Our growth will depend, in part, on a combination of the continued growth of the electronic payment market and our ability to increase our market share.
Our payment and software solutions compete against many forms of financial services and payment systems, including electronic, mobile and integrated payment platforms as well as cash and checks. Our competitors include traditional merchant acquirers such as financial institutions, affiliates of financial institutions and well-established payment processing companies that target our existing clients and potential clients directly, including Bank of America Merchant Services, Chase Paymentech, Elavon, Inc. (a subsidiary of U.S. Bancorp), First Data Corporation, Global Payments, Inc., Worldpay, Inc. and Total Systems Services, Inc. In addition, we compete with vendors that are specifically targeting ISVs and VARs as distribution partners for their merchant acquiring services, such as Stripe, Inc., Square, Inc., Toast, Inc., PayPal Holdings, Inc., Braintree (owned by PayPal), Adyen, Ltd., and OpenEdge (a division of Global Payments).
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technological, management and marketing resources than we have. Accordingly, if these competitors specifically target our business model, they may be able to offer more attractive fees or payment terms and advances to our clients and more attractive compensation

22



to our distribution partners. They also may be able to offer and provide products and services that we do not offer. There are also a large number of small providers of processing services that provide various ranges of services to our clients and our potential clients. This competition may effectively limit the prices we can charge and requires us to control costs aggressively in order to maintain acceptable profit margins. Further, if the use of payment cards other than Visa or Mastercard grows, or if there is increased use of certain debit cards, our average profit per transaction could be reduced. Competition could also result in a loss of existing distribution partners and clients and greater difficulty attracting new distribution partners and clients. One or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we are also subject to risks as a result of changes in business habits of our vendors and customers as they adjust to the competitive marketplace. Because our standing arrangements and agreements with our vendors and customers typically contain no purchase or sale obligations and are terminable by either party upon no or relatively short notice, we are subject to significant risks associated with the loss or change at any time in the business habits and financial condition of key vendors as they adapt to changes in the market. For example, NCR Corporation has disclosed that part of its strategy is shifting its business model to become a software and services led enterprise provider, along with providing cloud and mobile solutions. Such a change could adversely impact the amount or timing of receipt of revenue from such arrangements as a result of a shift in our fees from revenues from sales of the Company’s combined hardware and software to revenues from a SaaS model.
To acquire and retain clients, we depend in part on distribution partners that generally do not serve us exclusively, may not aggressively market our products and services, are subject to attrition and are not under our control.
We rely heavily on the efforts of our distribution partners to market our products and services to existing clients and potential clients. Generally, our agreements with distribution partners are not exclusive and these partners retain the right to refer potential clients to other merchant acquirers. Gaining and maintaining loyalty or exclusivity may require financial concessions to maintain current distribution partners or to attract potential distribution partners from our competitors who may be offering significantly more enticing pricing terms, such as increased signing bonuses or residuals payable to our referral partners, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations. If these distribution partners switch to another merchant acquirer, focus more heavily on promoting the products and services of one or more other merchant acquirers, cease operations or become insolvent, we may no longer receive new referrals from them or may receive fewer new referrals from them, and we also risk losing existing clients with whom the distribution partner has a relationship. Additionally, some of our distribution partners are subject to the requirements imposed by our bank sponsors, which may result in fines to them for non-compliance and may, in some cases, result in these entities ceasing to market our products and services. If we are unable to maintain our existing base of distribution partners or develop relationships with new distribution partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Further, we may be named in legal proceedings in connection with the actions of our distribution partners where it is alleged that our distribution partners have intentionally or negligently misrepresented pricing or other contractual terms to clients or potential clients related to our processing solutions or related products. Our distribution partners are independent businesses and we have no control over their day-to-day business activities, including their client marketing and solicitation practices. While in some cases we may have indemnification rights against our distribution partners for these activities, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully enforce those indemnification rights or that our distribution partners are adequately capitalized in a manner necessary to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us. If one or more judgments or settlements in any litigation or other investigation, plus related defense and investigation costs, significantly exceed our insurance coverage and we are unable to enforce our indemnification rights against a distribution partner or partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could materially suffer.
If we cannot keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry, the use of our products and services could decline, causing a reduction in our revenues.
The electronic payments market is subject to constant and significant changes. This market is characterized by rapid technological evolution, new product and service introductions, evolving industry standards, changing client needs and the entrance of non-traditional competitors, including products and services that enable card networks and banks to transact with consumers directly. To remain competitive, we continually pursue initiatives to

23



develop new products and services to compete with these new market entrants. These projects carry risks, such as cost overruns, delays in delivery, performance problems and lack of client acceptance. In addition, new products and offerings may not perform as intended or generate the business or revenue growth expected. Additionally, we look for acquisition opportunities, investments and alliance relationships with other businesses that will increase our market penetration and enhance our technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities. Any delay in the delivery of new products and services or the failure to differentiate our products and services or to accurately predict and address market demand could render our products and services less desirable, or even obsolete, to our clients and to our distribution partners. Furthermore, even though the market for integrated payment processing products and services is evolving, it may develop too rapidly or not rapidly enough for us to recover the costs we have incurred in developing new products and services targeted at this market. Any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
The continued growth and development of our payment processing activities will depend on our ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in consumer behavior. For example, consumer behavior may change regarding the use of payment card transactions, including the relative increased use of cash, crypto-currencies, other emerging or alternative payment methods and payment card systems that we or our processing partners do not adequately support or that do not provide adequate commissions to parties like us. Any failure to timely integrate emerging payment methods into our software, to anticipate consumer behavior changes or to contract with processing partners that support such emerging payment technologies could cause us to lose traction among our customers or referral sources, resulting in a corresponding loss of revenue, if those methods become popular among end-users of their services.
The products and services we deliver are designed to process complex transactions and provide reports and other information on those transactions, all at very high volumes and processing speeds. Our technology offerings must also integrate with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. Any failure to deliver an effective, reliable and secure service or any performance issue that arises with a new product or service could result in significant processing or reporting errors or other losses. If we do not deliver a promised new product or service to our clients or distribution partners in a timely manner or the product or service does not perform as anticipated, our development efforts could result in increased costs and a loss in business that could reduce our earnings and cause a loss of revenue. We also rely in part on third parties, including some of our competitors and potential competitors, for the development of and access to new technologies, including software and hardware. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to develop or adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. If we are unable to develop, adapt to or access technological changes or evolving industry standards on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
Unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services could expose us to liability, protracted and costly litigation and damage our reputation.
We are responsible both for our own business and to a significant degree for acts and omissions by certain of our distribution partners and third-party vendors under the rules and regulations established by the payment networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, Discover and American Express, and the debit networks. We and other third parties collect, process, store and transmit sensitive data, such as names, addresses, social security numbers, credit or debit card numbers and expiration dates, drivers’ license numbers and bank account numbers, and we have ultimate liability to the payment networks and member financial institutions that register us with the payment networks for our failure, or the failure of certain distribution partners and third parties with whom we contract, to protect this data in accordance with payment network requirements. The loss, destruction or unauthorized modification of client or cardholder data could result in significant fines, sanctions and proceedings or actions against us by the payment networks, governmental bodies, consumers or others, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such sanction, fine, proceeding or action could damage our reputation, force us to incur significant expenses in defense of these proceedings, disrupt our operations, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business and may result in the imposition of monetary liability.

24



We could be subject to breaches of security by hackers. Although we proactively employ multiple measures to defend our systems against intrusions and attacks and to protect the data we collect, our measures may not prevent unauthorized access or use of sensitive data. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in our efforts to modify or enhance our protective measures against evolving threats. A breach of our system or a third-party system upon which we rely may subject us to material losses or liability, including payment network fines, assessments and claims for unauthorized purchases with misappropriated credit, debit or card information, impersonation or other similar fraud claims. A misuse of such data or a cybersecurity breach could harm our reputation and deter our clients and potential clients from using electronic payments generally and our products and services specifically, thus reducing our revenue. In addition, any such misuse or breach could cause us to incur costs to correct the breaches or failures, expose us to uninsured liability, increase our risk of regulatory scrutiny, subject us to lawsuits and result in the imposition of material penalties and fines under state and federal laws or by the payment networks. While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. A significant cybersecurity breach could also result in payment networks prohibiting us from processing transactions on their networks or the loss of our financial institution sponsorship that facilitates our participation in the payment networks, either of which could materially impede our ability to conduct business.
Although we generally require that our agreements with our distribution partners and service providers who have access to client and customer data include confidentiality obligations that restrict these parties from using or disclosing any client or customer data except as necessary to perform their services under the applicable agreements, there can be no assurance that these contractual measures will prevent the unauthorized disclosure of business or client data, nor can we be sure that such third parties would be willing or able to satisfy liabilities arising from their breach of these agreements. Any failure by such third parties to adequately take these protective measures could result in protracted or costly litigation.
In addition, our agreements with our bank sponsors (as well as payment network requirements) require us to take certain protective measures to ensure the confidentiality of business and consumer data. Any failure to adequately comply with these protective measures could result in fees, penalties, litigation or termination of our bank sponsor agreements.
Any significant unauthorized disclosure of sensitive data entrusted to us would cause significant damage to our reputation, impair our ability to attract new integrated technology and distribution partners and may cause parties with whom we already have such agreements to terminate them.
If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of the Visa and Mastercard payment networks, those payment networks could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations through our bank sponsors.
We do not directly access the payment card networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, that enable our acceptance of credit cards and debit cards, including some types of prepaid cards. Accordingly, we must rely on banks or other payment processors to process transactions and must pay fees for the services. To provide our merchant acquiring services, we are registered through our bank sponsors with the Visa and Mastercard networks as service providers for member institutions. The majority of our $11.6 billion in payment volume in fiscal year 2018 was attributable to transactions processed on the Visa and Mastercard networks. As such, we, our bank sponsors and many of our clients are subject to complex and evolving payment network rules. The payment networks routinely update and modify requirements applicable to merchant acquirers, including rules regulating data integrity, third-party relationships (such as those with respect to bank sponsors and ISOs), merchant chargeback standards and PCI DSS. The rules of the card networks are set by their boards, which may be influenced by card issuers, some of which offer competing transaction processing services.
If we or our bank sponsors fail to comply with the applicable rules and requirements of the Visa or Mastercard payment networks, Visa or Mastercard could suspend or terminate our registration. Further, our transaction processing capabilities, including with respect to settlement processes, could be delayed or otherwise disrupted, and recurring non-compliance could result in the payment networks seeking to fine us, or suspend or terminate our registrations which allow us to process transactions on their networks, which would make it impossible for us to conduct our business on its current scale. Under certain circumstances specified in the payment network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments or other assessments of our compliance with

25



the PCI DSS. Such activities may reveal that we have failed to comply with the PCI DSS. In addition, even if we comply with the PCI DSS, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach. The termination of our registration with the payment networks, or any changes in payment network or issuer rules that limit our ability to provide merchant acquiring services, could have an adverse effect on our payment processing volumes, revenues and operating costs. If we are unable to comply with the requirements applicable to our settlement activities, the payment networks may no longer allow us to provide these services, which would require us to spend additional resources to obtain settlement services from a third-party provider. In addition, if we were precluded from processing Visa and Mastercard electronic payments, we would lose substantially all of our revenues.
We are also subject to the operating rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”), a self-regulatory organization which administers and facilitates private-sector operating rules for ACH payments and defines the roles and responsibilities of financial institutions and other ACH network participants. The NACHA Rules and Operating Guidelines impose obligations on us and our partner financial institutions. These obligations include audit and oversight by the financial institutions and the imposition of mandatory corrective action, including termination, for serious violations. If an audit or self-assessment under PCI DSS or NACHA identifies any deficiencies that we need to remediate, the remediation efforts may distract our management team and be expensive and time consuming.
If our bank sponsorships are terminated and we are not able to secure or successfully migrate client portfolios to new bank sponsors, we will not be able to conduct our business.
If the banks that sponsor us with the Visa and Mastercard networks stop sponsoring us, we would need to find other financial institutions to provide those services, which could be difficult and expensive. If we were unable to find a replacement financial institution to provide sponsorship, we could no longer provide processing services to affected clients, which would negatively impact our revenues and earnings. Furthermore, some agreements with our bank sponsors give them substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including our solicitation, application and qualification procedures for clients and the terms of our agreements with clients. Our bank sponsors’ discretionary actions under these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We have faced, and may in the future face, significant chargeback liability if our clients refuse or cannot reimburse chargebacks resolved in favor of their customers, and we may not accurately anticipate these liabilities.
We have potential liability for chargebacks associated with our clients’ processing transactions. In most circumstances, if a billing dispute between a client and a cardholder is not ultimately resolved in favor of our client, the disputed transaction is “charged back” to the client’s bank and credited to the account of the cardholder. Anytime our client is unable to satisfy a chargeback, we are responsible for that chargeback.
If we are unable to collect the chargeback from the client’s account or reserve account (if applicable), or if the client refuses or is financially unable due to bankruptcy or other reasons to reimburse us for the chargeback, we bear the loss for the amount of the refund paid to the cardholder’s bank. We incurred chargeback losses of $0.3 million, or 0.1% of revenues, in our 2018 fiscal year and $0.2 million, or 0.1% of revenues, in our 2017 fiscal year. Any increase in chargebacks not paid by our clients could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are potentially liable for losses caused by fraudulent credit card transactions. Card fraud occurs when a client’s customer uses a stolen card (or a stolen card number in a card-not-present transaction) to purchase merchandise or services. In a traditional card-present transaction, if the client swipes the card, receives authorization for the transaction from the card issuing bank and verifies the signature on the back of the card against the paper receipt signed by the customer, the card issuing bank remains liable for any loss. In a fraudulent card-not-present transaction, even if the client receives authorization for the transaction, the client is liable for any loss arising from the transaction. Many of the SMBs clients that we serve are small and transact a substantial percentage of their sales over the Internet or in response to telephone or mail orders. Because their sales are card-not-present transactions, these clients are more vulnerable to customer fraud than larger clients. Because

26



we target these SMB clients, we experience chargebacks arising from cardholder fraud more frequently than providers of payment processing services that service larger businesses and organizations.
Business fraud occurs when a business or organization, rather than a cardholder, knowingly uses a stolen or counterfeit card or card number to record a false sales transaction, or intentionally fails to deliver the merchandise or services sold in an otherwise valid transaction. Business fraud also occurs when employees of businesses change the business demand deposit accounts to their personal bank account numbers, so that payments are improperly credited to the employee’s personal account. We have established systems and procedures to detect and reduce the impact of business fraud, but there can be no assurance that these measures are or will be effective. Incidents of fraud could increase in the future. Failure to effectively manage risk and prevent fraud could increase our chargeback liability and other liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
On occasion, we experience increases in interchange and sponsorship fees; if we cannot pass these increases along to our clients, our profit margins will be reduced.
We pay interchange fees or assessments to issuing banks through the card associations for each transaction that is processed using their credit and debit cards. From time to time, the card associations increase the interchange fees that they charge processors and the sponsoring banks. At their sole discretion, our sponsoring banks have the right to pass any increases in interchange fees on to us. In addition, our sponsoring banks may seek to increase their sponsorship fees charged to us, all of which are based upon the dollar amount of the payment transactions we process. If we are not able to pass these fee increases along to clients through corresponding increases in our processing fees, our profit margins will be reduced.
Our systems and our third-party providers’ systems may fail, or our third-party providers may discontinue providing their services or technology generally or to us specifically, which in either case could interrupt our business, cause us to lose business and increase our costs.
We rely on third parties for specific services, software and hardware used in providing our products and services. Some of these organizations and service providers are our competitors or provide similar services and technology to our competitors, and we may not have long-term contracts with them. If these contracts are canceled or we are unable to renew them on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be adversely impacted. The termination by our service or technology providers of their arrangements with us or their failure to perform their services efficiently and effectively may adversely affect our relationships with our clients and, if we cannot find alternate providers quickly, may cause those clients to terminate their processing agreements with us.
We also rely in part on third parties for the development and access to new technologies, or for updates to existing products and services for which they provide ongoing support. Failure by these third-party providers to devote an appropriate level of attention to our products and services could result in delays in introducing new products or services, or delays in resolving any issues with existing products or services for which third-party providers provide ongoing support.
Our systems and operations or those of our third-party technology vendors could be exposed to damage or interruption from, among other things, fire, natural disaster, power loss, telecommunications failure, unauthorized entry, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, acts of terrorism, human error, vandalism or sabotage, financial insolvency and similar events. Our property and business interruption insurance may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses or failures that may occur. Likewise, while we have disaster recovery policies and arrangements in place, they have not been tested under actual disasters or similar events. Defects in our systems or those of third parties, errors or delays in the processing of payment transactions, telecommunications failures or other difficulties could result in:
loss of revenues;
loss of clients;
loss of client and cardholder data;
fines imposed by payment networks;

27



harm to our business or reputation resulting from negative publicity;
exposure to fraud losses or other liabilities;
additional operating and development costs; or
diversion of management, technical and other resources, among other consequences.
We are subject to economic and political risk, the business cycles of our clients and distribution partners and changes in the overall level of consumer and commercial spending, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The electronic payment industry depends heavily on the overall level of consumer and commercial spending. We are exposed to general economic conditions that affect consumer confidence, consumer spending, consumer discretionary income and changes in consumer purchasing habits. A sustained deterioration in general economic conditions, particularly in the United States, or increases in interest rates, could adversely affect our financial performance by reducing the number or aggregate volume of transactions made using electronic payments. A reduction in the amount of consumer or commercial spending could result in a decrease in our revenue and profits. If our clients make fewer purchases or sales of products and services using electronic payments, or consumers spend less money through electronic payments, we will have fewer transactions to process at lower dollar amounts, resulting in lower revenue.
A weakening in the economy could have a negative impact on our clients, as well as their customers who purchase products and services using the payment processing systems to which we provide access, which could, in turn, negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a weakening in the economy could force SMBs to close at higher than historical rates in part because many of them are not as well capitalized as larger organizations, which could expose us to potential credit losses and future transaction declines. Further, credit card issuers may reduce credit limits and become more selective in their card issuance practices. We also have a certain amount of fixed and semi-fixed costs, including rent, debt service and salaries, which could limit our ability to quickly adjust costs and respond to changes in our business and the economy.
A decline in the use of cards and ACH as payment mechanisms for consumers and businesses or adverse developments in the electronic payment industry in general could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
If consumers and businesses do not continue to use cards or ACH as payment mechanisms for their transactions or if the mix of payments among the types of cards and ACH changes in a way that is adverse to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory changes may also result in our clients seeking to charge their customers additional fees for use of credit or debit cards. Additionally, in recent years, increased incidents of security breaches have caused some consumers to lose confidence in the ability of businesses to protect their information, causing certain consumers to discontinue use of electronic payment methods. Security breaches could result in financial institutions canceling large numbers of credit and debit cards, or consumers or businesses electing to cancel their cards following such an incident.
We may not be able to continue to expand our share of our existing vertical markets or expand into new vertical markets, which would inhibit our ability to grow and increase our profitability.
Our future growth and profitability depend, in part, upon our continued expansion within the vertical markets in which we currently operate, the emergence of other vertical markets for electronic payments and our integrated solutions, and our ability to penetrate new vertical markets and our current distribution partners’ customer base. As part of our strategy to expand into new vertical markets, we look for acquisition opportunities and partnerships with other businesses that will allow us to increase our market penetration, technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities. We may not be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition or partnership candidates in the future, and if we do, they may not provide us with the benefits we anticipated.
Our expansion into new vertical markets also depends upon our ability to adapt our existing technology or to develop new technologies to meet the particular needs of each new vertical market. We may not have adequate financial or technological resources to develop effective and secure services or distribution channels that will

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satisfy the demands of these new vertical markets. Penetrating these new vertical markets may also prove to be more challenging or costly or take longer than we may anticipate. If we fail to expand into new vertical markets and increase our penetration into existing vertical markets, we may not be able to continue to grow our revenues and earnings.
We may not be able to successfully execute our strategy of growth through acquisitions.
A significant part of our growth strategy is to enter into new vertical markets through platform acquisitions of vertically-focused integrated payment and software solutions providers and to expand within our existing vertical markets through selective tuck-in acquisitions. Since our formation in 2012, we have completed a total of eleven platform and nineteen tuck-in acquisitions that enabled us to enter new, or expand within existing, vertical markets.
Although we expect to continue to execute our acquisition strategy:
we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or acquire additional assets on favorable terms;
we may compete with others to acquire assets, which competition may increase, and any level of competition could result in decreased availability or increased prices for acquisition candidates;
we may compete with others for select acquisitions and our competition may consist of larger, better-funded organizations with more resources and easier access to capital;
we may experience difficulty in anticipating the timing and availability of acquisition candidates;
we may not be able to obtain the necessary financing, on favorable terms or at all, to finance any of our potential acquisitions; and
we may not be able to generate cash necessary to execute our acquisition strategy.
The occurrence of any of these factors could adversely affect our growth strategy.
Revenues and profits generated via acquisition may be less than anticipated, the integration process could experience delays or difficulties, and we may fail to uncover all liabilities of acquisition targets through the due diligence process prior to an acquisition, resulting in unanticipated costs, losses or a decline in profits, as well as potential impairment charges.
In evaluating and determining the purchase price for a prospective acquisition, we estimate the future revenues and profits from that acquisition based largely on historical financial performance. Following an acquisition, we may experience some attrition in the number of clients serviced by an acquired provider of payment processing services or included in an acquired portfolio of merchant accounts. Should the rate of post-acquisition client attrition exceed the rate we forecasted, the revenues and profits from the acquisition may be less than we estimated, which could result in losses or a decline in profits, as well as potential impairment charges.
We perform a due diligence review of each of our acquisition partners. This due diligence review, however, may not adequately uncover all of the contingent or undisclosed liabilities we may incur as a consequence of the proposed acquisition, exposing us to potentially significant, unanticipated costs, as well as potential impairment charges.
The process of integrating operations could cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of one or more of our combined businesses and the possible loss of key personnel. For example, on May 31, 2019, we completed the acquisition of Pace Payment Systems, Inc. for an aggregate estimated purchase price of $65.4 million. The diversion of management’s attention and any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with acquisitions and the integration of the two companies’ operations could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects.

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We may encounter delays, operational difficulties and non-recurring costs in completing the necessary transfer of data processing functions and connecting systems links required by an acquisition, resulting in increased costs for, and a delay in the realization of revenues from, that acquisition.
The acquisition of a provider of payment processing services, as well as a portfolio of merchant accounts, requires the transfer of various data processing functions and connecting links to our systems and those of our third-party service providers. If the transfer of these functions and links does not occur rapidly and smoothly, payment processing delays and errors may occur, resulting in a loss of revenues, increased client attrition and increased expenditures to correct the transitional problems, which could preclude our attainment of, or reduce, our anticipated revenue and profits.
In connection with some acquisitions, we may incur non-recurring severance expenses, restructuring charges or change of control payments. These expenses, charges or payments, as well as the initial costs of integrating the personnel and facilities of an acquired business with those of our existing operations, may adversely affect our operating results during the initial financial periods following an acquisition. In addition, the integration of newly acquired companies may lead to diversion of management attention from other ongoing business concerns.
A decrease in the quality of the products and services we offer, including support services, could adversely impact our ability to attract and retain clients and distribution partners.
Our clients expect a consistent level of quality in the provision of our products and services. The support services that we provide are also a key element of the value proposition to our clients. If the reliability or functionality of our products and services is compromised or the quality of those products or services is otherwise degraded, or if we fail to continue to provide a high level of support, we could lose existing clients and find it harder to attract new clients and distribution partners.
Changes in tax laws or their interpretations, or becoming subject to additional U.S., state or local taxes that cannot be passed through to our clients, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to extensive tax liabilities, including federal and state and transactional taxes such as excise, sales/use, payroll, franchise, withholding, and ad valorem taxes. Changes in tax laws or their interpretations could decrease the amount of revenues we receive, the value of any tax loss carryforwards and tax credits recorded on our balance sheet and the amount of our cash flow, and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Some of our tax liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authority which could increase our tax liabilities. Furthermore, companies in the payment processing industry, including us, may become subject to incremental taxation in various tax jurisdictions. Taxing jurisdictions have not yet adopted uniform positions on this topic. If we are required to pay additional taxes and are unable to pass the tax expense through to our clients, our costs would increase and our net income would be reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many of our clients are SMBs, which can be more difficult and costly to retain than larger enterprises and may increase the effect of economic fluctuations on us.
Many of our clients are SMBs. To continue to grow our revenue, we must add new SMB clients, sell additional products and services to existing SMB clients and encourage existing SMB clients to continue doing business with us. However, retaining SMB clients can be more difficult than retaining large enterprises because SMBs often have higher rates of business failures and more limited resources and are typically less able to make technology-related decisions based on factors other than price.
SMBs are typically more susceptible to the adverse effects of economic fluctuations. Adverse changes in the economic environment or business failures of our SMB clients may have a greater impact on us than on our competitors who do not focus on SMBs to the extent that we do. As a result, we may need to onboard new clients at an accelerated rate or decrease our expenses to reduce negative impacts on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property.
Our intellectual property is critical to our future success, particularly in our strategic verticals where we may offer proprietary software solutions to our clients. We rely on a combination of contractual license rights and copyright, trademark and trade secret laws to establish and protect our proprietary technology. Third parties may challenge, invalidate, circumvent, infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property or the intellectual property of our third-party licensors, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, discontinuance of certain service offerings or other competitive harm. Others, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our products and services, design around or reverse engineer our intellectual property, and in such cases neither we nor our third-party licensors may be able to assert intellectual property rights against such parties. Further, our contractual license arrangements may be subject to termination or renegotiation with unfavorable terms to us, and our third-party licensors may be subject to bankruptcy, insolvency and other adverse business dynamics, any of which might affect our ability to use and exploit the products licensed to us by these third-party licensors. We may have to litigate to enforce or determine the scope and enforceability of our intellectual property rights (including litigation against our third-party licensors), which is expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not prove successful. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to obtain third-party intellectual property could harm our business and ability to compete.
We may be subject to infringement claims.
We may be subject to costly litigation if our products or services are alleged to infringe upon or otherwise violate a third party’s proprietary rights. Third parties may have, or may eventually be issued, patents that could be infringed by our products and services. Any of these third parties could make a claim of infringement against us with respect to our products and services. We may also be subject to claims by third parties for patent infringement, breach of copyright, trademark, license usage or other intellectual property rights. Any claim from third parties may result in a limitation on our ability to use the intellectual property subject to these claims. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have been purchasing intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours. Even if we believe that intellectual property related claims are without merit, defending against such claims is time consuming and expensive and could result in the diversion of the time and attention of our management and employees. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to redesign affected products or services, enter into costly settlement or license agreements, pay costly damage awards for which we may not have insurance, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or selling certain of our products or services. Even if we have an agreement for indemnification against such costs, the indemnifying party, if any in such circumstances, may be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on reasonable terms or substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be materially and adversely affected.
If we lose key personnel, or if their reputations are damaged, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, and proprietary information of our company could be shared with our competitors.
We depend on the ability and experience of a number of our key personnel, particularly Messrs. Daily, Whitson, Stanford and Bertke, who have substantial experience with our operations, the rapidly changing payment processing industry and the vertical markets in which we offer our products and services. Many of our key personnel have worked for us for a significant amount of time or were recruited by us specifically due to their experience. Our success depends in part upon the reputation and influence within the industry of our senior managers who have, over the years, developed long standing and favorable relationships with our vendors, card associations, bank sponsors and other payment processing and service providers. It is possible that the loss of the services of one or a combination of our senior executives or key managers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, contractual obligations related to confidentiality and assignment of intellectual property rights may be ineffective or unenforceable, and departing employees may share our proprietary information with competitors in ways that could adversely impact us.

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In a dynamic industry like ours, our success and growth depend on our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees.
Our business functions at the intersection of rapidly changing technological, social, economic and regulatory developments that require a wide-ranging set of expertise and intellectual capital. For us to continue to successfully compete and grow, we must attract, recruit, develop and retain the necessary personnel who can provide the needed expertise across the entire spectrum of our intellectual capital needs. While we have a number of key personnel who have substantial experience with our operations, we must also develop our personnel to provide succession plans capable of maintaining continuity in the midst of the inevitable unpredictability of human capital. The market for qualified personnel is competitive, and we may not succeed in recruiting additional personnel or may fail to effectively replace current personnel who depart with qualified or effective successors. Our effort to retain and develop personnel may also result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability. We can make no assurances that qualified employees will continue to be employed or that we will be able to attract and retain qualified personnel in the future. Failure to retain or attract key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operating results and operating metrics are subject to seasonality and volatility, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and operating results or in perceptions of our business prospects.
We have experienced in the past, and expect to continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our revenues as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically our revenues have been strongest in our first, third and fourth fiscal quarters and weakest in our second fiscal quarter. This is due to the increase in the number and amount of electronic payment transactions related to seasonal retail events, such as holiday and vacation spending. The number of business days in a month or quarter also may affect seasonal fluctuations. We also experience volatility in certain other metrics, such as clients, transactions and dollar volume. Volatility in our key operating metrics or their rates of growth could have a negative impact on our financial results and investor perceptions of our business prospects.
We are a decentralized company, which presents certain risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting a key business unit than we would in a more centralized environment, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are a decentralized company. While we believe this structure has catalyzed our growth and enabled us to remain responsive to opportunities and to our clients’ needs, it necessarily places significant control and decision-making powers in the hands of local management. This presents various risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting a key business unit than we would in a more centralized environment. In addition, it means that we may be slower to detect compliance related problems and that “company-wide” business initiatives, such as the integration of disparate information technology systems, are often more challenging and costly to implement, and their risk of failure higher, than they would be in a more centralized environment. Depending on the nature of the problem or initiative in question, such failure could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations, including commercial disputes and employee claims, such as claims of age discrimination, sexual harassment, gender discrimination, immigration violations or other local, state and federal labor law violations, and from time to time may be involved in governmental or regulatory investigations or similar matters arising out of our current or future business. Any claims asserted against us or our management, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, could harm our reputation or the reputation of our management and have an adverse impact on our relationship with our clients, distribution partners and other third parties and could lead to additional related claims. In light of the potential cost and uncertainty involved in litigation, we have in the past and may in the future settle matters even when we believe we have a meritorious

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defense. Certain claims may seek injunctive relief, which could disrupt the ordinary conduct of our business and operations or increase our cost of doing business. Our insurance or indemnities may not fully cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending ourselves in pending or future litigation or similar matters under various laws. Any judgments or settlements in any pending litigation or future claims, litigation or investigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Regulation
We are subject to extensive government regulation, and any new laws and regulations, industry standards or revisions made to existing laws, regulations or industry standards affecting the electronic payments industry, or our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations, may have an unfavorable impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to numerous federal and state regulations that affect the electronic payments industry. Regulation of our industry has increased significantly in recent years and is constantly evolving. Changes to statutes, regulations or industry standards, including interpretation and implementation of statutes, regulations or standards, could increase our cost of doing business or affect the competitive balance. We are also subject to U.S. financial services regulations, numerous consumer protection laws, escheat regulations and privacy and information security regulations, among other laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with regulations may have an adverse effect on our business, including the limitation, suspension or termination of services provided to, or by, third parties, and the imposition of penalties or fines. To the extent these regulations negatively impact the business, operations or financial condition of our clients, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because, among other matters, our clients could have less capacity to purchase products and services from us, could decide to avoid or abandon certain lines of business, or could seek to pass on increased costs to us by negotiating price reductions. We could be required to invest a significant amount of time and resources to comply with additional regulations or oversight or to modify the manner in which we contract with or provide products and services to our clients; and those regulations could directly or indirectly limit how much we can charge for our services. We may not be able to update our existing products and services, or develop new ones, to satisfy our clients’ needs. Any of these events, if realized, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
These and other laws and regulations, even if not directed at us, may require us to make significant efforts to change our products and services and may require that we incur additional compliance costs and change how we price our products and services to our clients and distribution partners. Implementing new compliance efforts is difficult because of the complexity of new regulatory requirements, and we are devoting and will continue to devote significant resources to ensure compliance. Furthermore, regulatory actions may cause changes in business practices by us and other industry participants which could affect how we market, price and distribute our products and services, and which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, even an inadvertent failure to comply with laws and regulations, as well as rapidly evolving social expectations of corporate fairness, could damage our business or our reputation.
Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and other federal and state regulations may increase our compliance costs, limit our revenues and otherwise negatively affect our business.
Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, there have been substantial reforms to the supervision and operation of the financial services industry, including numerous new regulations that have imposed compliance costs and, in some cases, limited revenue sources for us and our financial institution partners and clients. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), which is empowered to conduct rule-making and supervision related to, and enforcement of, federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has issued guidance that applies to “supervised service providers,” which the CFPB has defined to include service providers, like us, to CFPB supervised banks and nonbanks. In addition, federal and state agencies have recently proposed or enacted cybersecurity regulations, such as the Cybersecurity Requirements for Financial Services Companies issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services and the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Enhanced Cyber Risk Management Standards issued by The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the

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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in October 2016. Such cybersecurity regulations are applicable to large bank holding companies and their subsidiaries, as well as to service providers to those organizations. Any new rules and regulations implemented by the CFPB, state or other authorities or in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act could, among other things, slow our ability to adapt to a rapidly changing industry, require us to make significant additional investments to comply with them, redirect time and resources to compliance obligations, modify our products or services or the manner in which they are provided, or limit or change the amount or types of revenue we are able to generate.
Interchange fees, which the payment processor typically pays to the card issuer in connection with credit and debit card transactions, are subject to increasingly intense legal, regulatory and legislative scrutiny. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act regulates and limits debit card fees charged by certain card issuers and allows businesses and organizations to set minimum dollar amounts for the acceptance of credit cards. Specifically, under the so-called “Durbin Amendment” to the Dodd-Frank Act, the interchange fees that certain issuers charge businesses and organizations for debit transactions are regulated by the Federal Reserve and must be “reasonable and proportional” to the cost incurred by the issuer in authorizing, clearing and settling the transactions. Rules released by the Federal Reserve in July 2011 to implement the Durbin Amendment mandate a cap on debit transaction interchange fees for card issuers with assets of $10 billion or greater. Since October 2011, a payment network may not prohibit a card issuer from contracting with any other payment network for the processing of electronic debit transactions involving the card issuer’s debit cards, and card issuers and payment networks may not inhibit the ability of businesses and organizations to direct the routing of debit card transactions over any payment networks that can process the transactions.
Rules implementing the Dodd-Frank Act also contain certain prohibitions on payment network exclusivity and merchant routing restrictions. These restrictions could negatively affect the number of debit transactions processed, and prices charged per transaction, which would negatively affect our business.
If we violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (“FERPA”) and the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (“PPRA”), it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our clients in our education vertical and could harm our reputation. Further, if we disclose student information in violation of FERPA or PPRA, our access to student information could be suspended.
Our systems and solutions must also comply, in certain circumstances, with FERPA and PPRA, as well as with rapidly emerging state student data privacy laws that require schools to protect student data and to adopt privacy policies which can significantly vary from one state to another. FERPA generally prohibits an educational institution from disclosing personally identifiable information from a student’s education records without a parent’s consent unless certain statutory exceptions apply. Our school clients and their students disclose to us, and we may store, certain information that originates from or comprises a student education record under FERPA. PPRA puts limits on “survey, analysis or evaluations” that may come into play when schools employ internet-based educational services. Schools are required to develop policies that address, among other things, the collection, disclosure or use of personal information collected from students for the purpose of marketing or selling that information, and can place restrictions on third parties’ use of that data. As an entity that provides services to educational institutions, we are indirectly subject to FERPA’s and PPRA’s privacy requirements, and we may not transfer or otherwise disclose or use any personally identifiable information from a student record to another party other than on a basis and in a manner permitted under the statutes. If we violate FERPA or PPRA, it could result in a material breach of contract with one or more of our clients and could reduce revenues or harm our reputation. Further, if we disclose student information in violation of FERPA or PPRA, our access to student information could be suspended, thus inhibiting our business operations.
We must comply with laws and regulations prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices, and any failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business.
We and many of our clients are subject to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In addition, provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”), the Telemarketing Sales Act and other laws, rules and or regulations, may directly impact the activities of certain of our clients, and in some cases may subject us, as the electronic payment processor or provider of certain services, to investigations, fees, fines and disgorgement of funds if we were deemed to have improperly aided and abetted or otherwise provided the means and instrumentalities to facilitate

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the illegal or improper activities of the client through our services. Various federal and state regulatory enforcement agencies including the Federal Trade Commission and state attorneys general have authority to take action against non-banks that engage in UDAAP, or violate other laws, rules and regulations. To the extent we are processing payments or providing products and services for a client that may be in violation of laws, rules and regulations, we may be subject to enforcement actions and as a result may incur losses and liabilities that may adversely affect our business.
Numerous other federal laws affect our business, and any failure to comply with those laws could harm our business.
Our PayFac solutions present certain regulatory challenges, principally those relating to money transmitter issues. To address these challenges we, along with our third-party service providers, use structural arrangements designed to prevent us from receiving or controlling our client’s funds and therefore remove our activities from the scope of money transmitter regulation. There can be no assurance that these structural arrangements will remain effective as money transmitter laws continue to evolve or that the applicable regulatory bodies, particularly state agencies, will view our PayFac activities as compliant.
Our business may also be subject to the Fair Credit Reporting Act (the “FCRA”), which regulates the use and reporting of consumer credit information and imposes disclosure requirements on entities that take adverse action based on information obtained from credit reporting agencies. We could be liable if our practices under the FCRA do not comply with the FCRA or regulations under it.
The Housing Assistance Tax Act of 2008 included an amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” that requires information returns to be made for each calendar year by payment processing entities and third-party settlement organizations with respect to payments made in settlement of electronic payment transactions and third-party payment network transactions occurring in that calendar year. Reportable transactions are also subject to backup withholding requirements. We could be liable for penalties if our information returns are not in compliance with these regulations.
Our solutions may be required to conform, in certain circumstances, to requirements set forth in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, which governs the privacy and security of “protected health information.”
Depending on how our products and services evolve, we may be subject to a variety of additional laws and regulations, including those governing money transmission, gift cards and other prepaid access instruments, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, restrictions on foreign assets, gambling, banking and lending, U.S. Safe Harbor regulations, and import and export restrictions. Additionally, we are contractually required to comply with certain anti-money laundering regulations in connection with our payment processing activities. These regulations are generally governed by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“FinCEN”) and the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). Our efforts to comply with these laws and regulations could be costly and result in diversion of management time and effort and may still not guarantee compliance. Regulators continue to increase their scrutiny of compliance with these obligations, which may require us to further revise or expand our compliance program, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of our clients and our clients’ customers, and to monitor transactions. If we are found to be in violation of any such legal or regulatory requirements, we may be subject to monetary fines or other penalties such as a cease and desist order, or we may be required to make product changes, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Changing laws and governmental rules and regulations designed to protect or limit access to or use of personal information could adversely affect our ability to effectively provide our products and services, and actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal and regulatory obligations may negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to those regulations discussed previously that are imposed by the card networks and NACHA, governmental bodies in the United States have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, laws and regulations restricting the use, collection, storage, transfer and disposal of, and requiring safeguarding of, personal information. Our operations are subject to certain provisions of these laws. Relevant federal privacy laws include,

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in addition to FERPA and PPRA described above, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which applies directly to a broad range of financial institutions and indirectly, or in some instances directly, to companies that provide services to financial institutions. The U.S. Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) also regulates the collection of information by operators of websites and other electronic solutions that are directed to children under 13 years of age. These laws and regulations restrict the collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, require notice to individuals of privacy practices and provide individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of protected information. These laws also impose requirements for safeguarding and proper destruction of personal information through the issuance of data security standards or guidelines. In addition, there are state laws restricting the ability to collect and utilize certain types of information such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers. Certain state laws impose similar privacy obligations as well as obligations to provide notification of security breaches of computer databases that contain personal information to affected individuals, state officers and consumer reporting agencies and businesses and governmental agencies that own data.
In connection with providing products and services to our clients, we are required by regulations, government-required standards, and by our client contracts with them and with our financial institution distribution partners to provide assurances regarding the confidentiality and security of non-public consumer information. These contracts may require periodic audits by independent companies regarding our compliance with applicable standards. The compliance standards relate to the security of our infrastructure, and include components and operational procedures designed to safeguard the confidentiality and security of individuals’ non-public personal information that our clients share with us. Our ability to maintain compliance with these standards and satisfy these audits will affect our ability to attract, grow and maintain business in the future. If we fail to comply with the laws and regulations relating to data privacy and information security, we could be exposed to legal claims and actions or to regulatory enforcement proceedings. In addition, our relationships and reputation could be harmed, which could inhibit our ability to retain existing clients and distribution partners and obtain new clients and distribution partners.
Legal requirements relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data continue to evolve. For example, in June 2018, the State of California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), which will go into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA will require companies that collect personal information of California residents to make new disclosures to consumers about their data collection, use and sharing practices, will grant consumers specific access rights to their data, will allow consumers to opt out of certain data sharing with or sales to third parties, and will create a new private cause of action for data breaches. However, legislators have proposed amendments to the CCPA, and the California Attorney General’s Office is required to issue rules and regulations, which have not yet been issued. As a result, it remains unclear what, if any, modifications will be made to the CCPA or how it will be interpreted by regulators and courts. Several other states have introduced similar legislation, although it remains to be seen whether any such laws will be passed. Any adopted legislation may impose varying standards and requirements on our data collection, use and processing activities, which may be inconsistent with those of the CCPA and other laws. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the online collection, use, dissemination and security of data.
Government regulators, industry groups and class action attorneys are increasingly scrutinizing how companies collect, process, use, store, share and transmit personal data. Regulators and courts may expand interpretations of existing laws, thereby further impacting our business. If more restrictive privacy laws or rules and/or inconsistent legal requirements are adopted by authorities in the future on the federal or state level, or regulators’ enforcement priorities shift, our compliance costs may increase and our ability to perform due diligence on, and monitor the risk of, our current and potential clients may decrease, which could create liability for us. Additionally, if we suffer a data breach, other privacy or cybersecurity regulatory compliance failures or are subject to fines, sanctions or proceedings as a result of actual or perceived compliance failures, or any similar event causing reputational harm, our opportunities for growth may be curtailed, and our potential liability for security breaches may increase, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and competitive position.
As of March 31, 2019, we had $76.3 million of indebtedness outstanding under our 2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility, consisting of $32.5 million outstanding under our term loan and $43.8 million outstanding under our revolving loan. On May 9, 2019, we replaced our existing 2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility with a new 2019 senior secured credit facility (the “2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility”). The 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility consists of a $300 million revolving line of credit, together with an option to increase the revolving line of credit and/or obtain incremental term loans in an additional principal amount of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate (subject to the receipt of additional commitments for any such incremental loan amounts). The 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility accrues interest, at LIBOR (based upon an interest period of one, two, three or six months or, under some circumstances, up to twelve months) or, at the option of the Company, the base rate (defined as the highest of (x) the Bank of America prime rate, (y) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% and (z) LIBOR plus 1.00%), plus an applicable margin of up to 3.25% for LIBOR loans and up to 1.25% for base rate loans, in each case depending upon the consolidated total leverage ratio, as defined in the agreement. Interest is payable at the end of the selected interest period, but no less frequently than quarterly. Additionally, the 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility requires the Company to pay unused commitment fees of up to 0.30% on any undrawn amounts under the revolving line of credit and letter of credit fees of up to 3.25% on the maximum amount available to be drawn under each letter of credit issued under the agreement. As of May 31, 2019, we had $165.5 million of indebtedness outstanding under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility, consisting entirely of a revolving loan. Although we may enter into interest rate swap agreements in the future, we and our subsidiaries are exposed to interest rate increases on our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility that are not covered by interest rate swaps. For additional information about our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Quarterly Report.
To service this debt and any additional debt we may incur in the future, we need to generate cash. Our ability to generate cash is subject, to a certain extent, to our ability to successfully execute our business strategy, including acquisition activity, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. There can be no assurance that our business will be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings or other financing will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our debt and fund our other liquidity needs. To the extent we are required to use our cash flow from operations or the proceeds of any future financing to service our debt instead of funding working capital, capital expenditures, acquisition activity or other general corporate purposes, we will be less able to plan for, or react to, changes in our business, industry and in the economy generally. This will place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance any of our debt on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that the terms of that debt will allow any of the above alternative measures or that these measures would satisfy our scheduled debt service obligations. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to repay or refinance our debt on favorable terms, it could significantly adversely affect our financial condition and the value of our outstanding debt. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. In addition, the credit agreement governing our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility contains, and any agreements evidencing or governing other future debt may contain, certain restrictive covenants that limit our ability, among other things, to engage in certain activities that are in our long-term best interests, including our ability to:
incur liens on property, assets or revenues;
incur or assume additional debt or amend our debt and other material agreements;
declare or make distributions and redeem or repurchase equity interests or issue preferred stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase debt;
make investments;
enter into any sale-and-leaseback of property;
engage in certain business activities; and
engage in certain mergers and asset sales.

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The restrictive covenants in our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility also require us to maintain specified financial ratios. While we have not previously breached and are not in breach of any of these covenants, there can be no guarantee that we will not breach these covenants in the future. Our ability to comply with these covenants and restrictions may be affected by events and factors beyond our control. Our failure to comply with any of these covenants or restrictions could result in an event of default under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility. An event of default would permit the lending banks under the facility to take certain actions, including terminating all outstanding commitments and declaring all amounts outstanding under our credit facility to be immediately due and payable, including all outstanding borrowings, accrued and unpaid interest thereon, and all other amounts owing or payable with respect to such borrowings and any terminated commitments. In addition, the lenders would have the right to proceed against the collateral we granted to them, which includes substantially all of our assets.
We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.
In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances, and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities or refinance existing debt for other reasons. We may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. As discussed above, the credit agreement governing our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to incur additional debt and engage in other capital-raising activities. Any debt financing we obtain in the future could involve covenants that further restrict our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to operate our business, obtain additional capital and pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Furthermore, if we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt or other equity-linked securities, our then-existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
Disruptions in the financial and credit markets may materially and adversely impact consumer spending patterns and affect the availability and cost of credit.
Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance our debt and to obtain financing for acquisitions or other general corporate and commercial purposes will depend on our operating and financial performance, which in turn is subject to prevailing economic conditions and to financial, business and other factors beyond our control, including global credit markets and the financial services industry. These factors may adversely impact the availability of credit already arranged, and the availability and cost of credit in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to arrange credit on terms we believe are acceptable or that permit us to finance our business with historical margins.
Despite our current level of debt, we may be able to incur more debt, including secured debt, and undertake additional financial obligations. Incurring such debt or undertaking such additional financial obligations could further exacerbate the risk our indebtedness poses to our financial condition.
We may be able to incur significant additional debt, including secured debt, in the future. Although the credit agreement governing our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility restricts our ability to incur additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and debt we incur in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions also do not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute “indebtedness” or “debt” under the various instruments governing our debt, may be waived by certain votes of lenders and, if we refinance existing debt, such refinanced debt may contain fewer restrictions on our activities. To the extent we increase our debt above our currently anticipated debt levels, the related risks that we face could intensify.

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Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure and Our Company
We are a holding company with no operations of our own, and our principal asset is our controlling membership interest in i3 Verticals, LLC. Accordingly, we depend on distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC to pay our taxes and other expenses.
We are a holding company with no operations of our own and currently have no significant assets other than our ownership of Common Units of i3 Verticals, LLC. We currently have no independent means of generating revenue. Consequently, our ability to obtain operating funds depends upon distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC. Furthermore, i3 Verticals, LLC is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, is not itself subject to U.S. federal income tax. Instead, its net taxable income is generally allocated to its members, including us, pro rata according to the number of membership interests each member owns. Accordingly, we incur income taxes on our proportionate share of any net taxable income of i3 Verticals, LLC in addition to expenses related to our operations, and our ability to obtain funds to pay these income taxes currently depends upon distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC. We intend to cause i3 Verticals, LLC to distribute cash to us in an amount at least equal to the amount necessary to cover our respective tax liabilities, if any, with respect to our allocable share of the net income of i3 Verticals, LLC and to cover dividends, if any, we declare, as well as any payments due under the Tax Receivable Agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) by and among i3 Verticals, Inc., i3 Verticals, LLC and each of the Continuing Equity Owners. See the detailed discussion under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Senior Secured Credit Facility” in our Quarterly Report for a discussion of the restrictive covenants, including i3 Verticals, LLC’s obligations to maintain specific financial ratios, that may limit its ability to make certain distributions to us.
To the extent that we need funds to pay our taxes or other liabilities or to fund our operations, and i3 Verticals, LLC is restricted from making distributions to us under applicable agreements under which it is bound, including its financing agreements, laws or regulations, does not have sufficient cash to make these distributions or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, we may have to borrow funds to meet these obligations and operate our business, and our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. To the extent that we are unable to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid.
The interests of the other Continuing Equity Owners in our business may conflict with the interests of holders of shares of our Class A common stock.
The Continuing Equity Owners, who collectively will hold approximately 50.6% of the combined voting power of our common stock after the completion of this offering (or 48.1% if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), may receive payments from us under the Tax Receivable Agreement upon a redemption or exchange of their Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC, including the issuance of shares of our Class A common stock upon any such redemption or exchange. As a result, the interests of the Continuing Equity Owners may conflict with the interests of holders of shares of our Class A common stock. For example, the Continuing Equity Owners may have different tax positions from us which could influence their decisions regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, whether and when to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, and whether and when we should terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement and accelerate our obligations thereunder. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration tax or other considerations of the Continuing Equity Owners even in situations where no similar considerations are relevant to us. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement” for a discussion of the Tax Receivable Agreement and the related likely benefits to be realized by the Continuing Equity Owners.
Any payments made under the Tax Receivable Agreement to our equity holders that are parties to such agreement could be significant and will reduce the amount of overall cash flow that would otherwise be available to us.
As a result of any redemptions or exchanges of Common Units with us or i3 Verticals, LLC for shares of our Class A common stock or, at our option, cash to be paid from i3 Verticals, LLC, we expect to become entitled to the tax benefits attributable to tax basis adjustments involving an amount generally equal to the difference between the value of the shares of Class A common stock we issue in such redemption or exchange or the cash

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purchase price for the acquired Class A units, and the equity holder’s share of the tax basis in i3 Verticals, LLC’s tangible and intangible assets that is attributable to the acquired Class A units. We have agreed in the Tax Receivable Agreement entered into with i3 Verticals, LLC and certain of our Continuing Equity Owners to pay to each such holder (either directly or indirectly by contributing such payment to i3 Verticals, LLC for remittance to the Continuing Equity Owners) with respect to a redemption or exchange by that holder approximately 85% of the amount, if any, by which our U.S. federal and state income tax payments are reduced as a result of tax benefits attributable to the redemption or exchange by that holder for the period beginning with the remainder of the tax year in which the applicable redemption or exchange occurs and continuing for each succeeding tax year generally beginning on or before the fifteenth anniversary of the date of such redemption or exchange. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.”
The tax basis adjustments, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of any redemptions or exchanges between us (or i3 Verticals, LLC) and each holder, the amount and timing of our income and the amount and timing of the amortization and depreciation deductions and other tax benefits attributable to the tax basis adjustments. The payment obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement ultimately are obligations of i3 Verticals, Inc., and we expect that the payments required under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial and will reduce the overall cash flow that would be available to us.
We may not be able to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that are expected to result from future redemptions or exchanges of Common Units by holders.
Our organizational structure, including the Tax Receivable Agreement, confers certain benefits upon the Continuing Equity Owners that will not benefit the holders of our Class A common stock to the same extent as it will benefit the Continuing Equity Owners. Under the Tax Receivable Agreement, we are entitled to retain (a) 15% of the U.S. federal and state income tax savings we realize as a result of increases in tax basis created by any future redemptions or exchanges of Common Units held by our equity holders that are parties to the Tax Receivable Agreement for shares of our Class A common stock or cash for the tax years following a redemption or exchange covered by the Tax Receivable Agreement, and (b) all of the U.S. federal and state income tax savings we realize from such redemptions or exchanges for tax periods ending after those covered by the Tax Receivable Agreement. Our ability to realize, and benefit from, these tax savings depends on several assumptions, including that we will earn sufficient taxable income each year during the period over which the deductions arising from any such basis increases and payments are available and that there are no adverse changes in applicable law or regulations. If our actual taxable income were insufficient or there were adverse changes in applicable law or regulations, we may be unable to realize all or a portion of these expected benefits, and our cash flows and stockholders’ equity could be negatively affected.
In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement to the Continuing Equity Owners may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that upon certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control or if, at any time, we elect an early termination of the Tax Receivable Agreement, then our obligations, or our successor’s obligations, under the Tax Receivable Agreement to make payments thereunder would be based on certain assumptions, including an assumption that we would have sufficient taxable income to fully use all potential future tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.
As a result of the foregoing, (a) we could be required to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement that are greater than the specified percentage of the actual benefits we ultimately realize in respect of the tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement and (b) if we elect to terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement early, we would be required to make an immediate cash payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits that are the subject of the Tax Receivable Agreement, which payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of such future tax benefits. In these situations, our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business

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combinations or other changes of control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to fund or finance our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
In certain circumstances, i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make distributions to us and the Continuing Equity Owners, and the distributions that i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make may be substantial.
Funds used by i3 Verticals, LLC to satisfy its tax distribution obligations will not be available for reinvestment in our business. Moreover, the tax distributions that i3 Verticals, LLC will be required to make may be substantial, and will likely exceed (as a percentage of i3 Verticals, LLC’s net income) the overall effective tax rate applicable to a similarly situated corporate taxpayer.
As a result of potential differences in the amount of net taxable income allocable to us and to the Continuing Equity Owners, as well as the use of an assumed tax rate in calculating i3 Verticals, LLC’s distribution obligations, we may receive distributions significantly in excess of our tax liabilities and obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. To the extent, as currently expected, we do not distribute such cash balances as dividends on our Class A common stock and instead, for example, hold such cash balances or lend them to i3 Verticals, LLC, the Continuing Equity Owners would benefit from any value attributable to such accumulated cash balances as a result of their ownership of Class A common stock following a redemption or exchange of their Common Units.
We will not be reimbursed for any payments made to the Continuing Equity Owners under the Tax Receivable Agreement if any tax benefits are disallowed.
Payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine, and the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or another tax authority may challenge all or part of the tax basis increases, as well as other related tax positions we take, and a court could sustain such challenge. We will not be reimbursed for any cash payments previously made to the Continuing Equity Owners under the Tax Receivable Agreement if any tax benefits we initially claimed and for which we made a payment to a Continuing Equity Owner are subsequently challenged by a taxing authority and are ultimately disallowed. Instead, any excess cash payments we make to a Continuing Equity Owner will be netted against any future cash payments that we might otherwise be required to make to such Continuing Equity Owner under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement. However, we might not determine that we have effectively made an excess cash payment to a Continuing Equity Owner for a number of years following the initial time of such payment and, if any of our tax reporting positions are challenged by a taxing authority, we will not be permitted to reduce any future cash payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement until any such challenge is finally settled or determined. As a result, we could make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement in excess of the tax savings that we realize in respect of the tax attributes with respect to the Continuing Equity Owners that are the subject of the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and Nasdaq rules. The requirements of these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs, made some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and have increased demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and that we maintain internal control over financial reporting. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures. To maintain the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, we may need to commit significant resources, retain or hire staff and maintain sufficient management oversight. As a publicly-traded company, we are required to maintain substantial control systems, policies and procedures to satisfy requirements applicable to public companies, including periodic reporting with the obligations of the SEC and Nasdaq. Failure to maintain such control systems, policies and procedures could jeopardize our status as a public company, and the loss of such status may materially and adversely affect us and our stockholders. In addition, failure to comply with any laws or regulations applicable to us as a public company may result in legal proceedings and/or regulatory investigations, and may cause reputational damage.

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Our internal control over financial reporting may not be effective and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
Since the completion of our IPO, we have been subject to a requirement, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to conduct an annual review and evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting and furnish a report by management on, among other things, our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting each fiscal year beginning with the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC. However, because we are an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the earlier of the fifth year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. Ensuring that we have adequate internal control over financial reporting in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that must be evaluated frequently. Establishing and maintaining these internal controls is and will continue to be costly and may divert management’s attention.
When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In addition, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as such standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude, on an ongoing basis, that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and any remediation actions or the impact of the same on our operations. If we have not adequately implemented or complied with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC, or suffer other adverse regulatory consequences, including penalties for violation of Nasdaq rules. As a result, there could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. A loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements also could occur if we or our independent registered public accounting firm were to report one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system, including the costs of the hiring of additional personnel. Any such action could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could also lead to a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
Certain provisions of Delaware law and anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.
Certain provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer, or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt, or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.
These provisions provide for, among other things:
prohibiting the use of cumulative voting for the election of directors;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings; and
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings.

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In addition, while we have opted out of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the “DGCL,” our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains similar provisions providing that we may not engage in certain “business combinations” with any “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:
prior to such time, our board of directors (the Board of Directors”) approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the votes of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding certain shares; or
at or subsequent to that time, the business combination is approved by our Board of Directors and by the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the votes of our outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with that person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or within the previous three years owned, 15% or more of the votes of our outstanding voting stock. For purposes of this provision, “voting stock” means any class or series of stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
Under certain circumstances, this provision will make it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various business combinations with our company for a three-year period. This provision may encourage companies interested in acquiring our company to negotiate in advance with our Board of Directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if our Board of Directors approves either the business combination or the transaction that results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. These provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our Board of Directors and may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
These provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company that is in the best interest of our minority stockholders. Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our Class A common stock if they are viewed as discouraging future takeover attempts. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to nominate directors for election to our Board of Directors and take other corporate actions.
We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our Class A common stock, which could depress the price of our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue one or more series of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of the shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our preferred stock can be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our Class A common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discourage bids for our Class A common stock at a premium to the market price, and materially and adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The Continuing Equity Owners own Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC, and the Continuing Equity Owners have the right to redeem their Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC pursuant to the terms of the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement for shares of Class A common stock or cash.
After this offering, we will have an aggregate of 136,282,408 shares of Class A common stock authorized but unissued (or 135,608,644 if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full),

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including 13,595,401 shares of Class A common stock issuable, at our election, upon redemption of i3 Verticals, LLC Common Units that will be held by the Continuing Equity Owners. Subject to certain restrictions in the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement, the Continuing Equity Owners are entitled to have their Common Units redeemed from time to time at each of their options (subject in certain circumstances to time-based and service-based vesting requirements and other limitations) for newly-issued shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis or a cash payment equal to a volume weighted average market price of one share of Class A common stock for each Common Unit redeemed, in each case, in accordance with the terms of the i3 Verticals LLC Agreement. At our election, however, we may effect a direct exchange by i3 Verticals, Inc. of such Class A common stock or such cash, as applicable, for such Common Units in lieu of redemption. The Continuing Equity Owners may exercise such redemption right for as long as their Common Units remain outstanding. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—i3 Verticals LLC Agreement.” We have entered into a Registration Rights Agreement pursuant to which the shares of Class A common stock issued to certain Continuing Equity Owners upon such redemption and the shares of Class A common stock issued to certain Continuing Equity Owners in connection with the Reorganization Transactions will be eligible for resale registration, subject to certain limitations set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Registration Rights Agreement.”
We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our Class A common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of shares of our Class A common stock may have on the market price of our Class A common stock. Sales or distributions of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock, including shares issued in connection with an acquisition, or the perception that such sales or distributions could occur, may cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.
You may be diluted by future issuances of preferred stock or additional Class A common stock or Common Units in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise; future sales of such shares in the public market, or the expectations that such sales may occur, could lower our stock price.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue shares of our Class A common stock and options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to our Class A common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion. We could issue a significant number of shares of Class A common stock in the future in connection with investments or acquisitions. Any of these issuances could dilute our existing stockholders, and such dilution could be significant. Moreover, such dilution could have a material adverse effect on the market price for the shares of our Class A common stock.
The future issuance of shares of preferred stock with voting rights may adversely affect the voting power of the holders of shares of our Class A common stock, either by diluting the voting power of our Class A common stock if the preferred stock votes together with the common stock as a single class, or by giving the holders of any such preferred stock the right to block an action on which they have a separate class vote, even if the action were approved by the holders of our shares of our Class A common stock.
The future issuance of shares of preferred stock with dividend or conversion rights, liquidation preferences or other economic terms favorable to the holders of preferred stock could adversely affect the market price for our Class A common stock by making an investment in the Class A common stock less attractive. For example, investors in the Class A common stock may not wish to purchase Class A common stock at a price above the conversion price of a series of convertible preferred stock because the holders of the preferred stock would effectively be entitled to purchase Class A common stock at the lower conversion price, causing economic dilution to the holders of Class A common stock.
A significant portion of our total outstanding shares are restricted from immediate resale but may be sold into the market in the near future. This could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
We and our officers, directors and certain Continuing Equity Owners, subject to certain exceptions, will agree that, without the prior written consent of Cowen and Company, LLC, Raymond James & Associates, Inc. and BofA Securities, Inc., the representatives of the underwriters (the “Representatives”), on behalf of the underwriters, we and they will not, during the period ending 90 days after the date of this prospectus: (1) offer, sell, contract to sell,

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pledge, grant any option to purchase, make any short sale or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of Class A common stock or any securities convertible into, exchangeable for or that represent the right to receive shares of Class A common stock; (2) file any registration statement with the SEC relating to the offering of any shares of Class A common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for Class A common stock; or (3) enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of Class A common stock, subject to certain exceptions. The Representatives, in their sole discretion, may release the Class A common stock and other securities subject to the lock-up agreements described above in whole or in part at any time with or without notice. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”
The market price of our Class A common stock may decline significantly when the restrictions on resale by our existing stockholders lapse. A decline in the market price of our Class A common stock might impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of additional shares of Class A common stock or other equity securities.
Sales of shares of our Class A common stock in connection with the Registration Rights Agreement, or the prospect of any such sales, could materially affect the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities.
In connection with the completion of our IPO, we entered into a Registration Rights Agreement with certain Continuing Equity Owners. Any sales in connection with the Registration Rights Agreement, or the prospect of any such sales, could materially and adversely impact the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities. For a further description of our Registration Rights Agreement, see “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Registration Rights Agreement.”
See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling shares of our Class A common stock after this offering.
In the future, we may also issue additional securities if we need to raise capital, including, but not limited to, in connection with acquisitions, which could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, for the foreseeable future, to repay indebtedness and to fund the development and growth of our business. We do not intend to pay any dividends to holders of our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors taking into account various factors, including our business, operating results and financial condition, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion, any legal or contractual limitations on our ability to pay dividends under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility or otherwise. As a result, if our Board of Directors does not declare and pay dividends, the capital appreciation in the price of our Class A common stock, if any, will be the only source of gain on an investment in our Class A common stock, and holders of our Class A common stock may have to sell some or all of their shares to generate cash flow from their investment.
In addition, even if we decide in the future to pay any dividends, we are a holding company with no independent operations of our own, and we depend on distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC to pay taxes, make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement or pay any cash dividends on our Class A common stock. Deterioration in the financial conditions, earnings or cash flow of i3 Verticals, LLC and its subsidiaries for any reason could limit or impair its ability to pay cash distributions or other distributions to us, thereby rendering us unable to pay dividends.
If we fail to meet industry analyst expectations, or analysts downgrade their recommendations regarding our Class A common stock, its trading price and volume could decline.
Our Class A common stock is traded publicly and various securities analysts follow our company and issue reports on us. These reports include information about our historical financial results as well as the analysts’

45



estimates of our future performance. The analysts’ estimates are based upon their own independent opinions and may be different from our own estimates or expectations. If our operating results are below the estimates or expectations of public market analysts and investors, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline. If one or more of securities and industry analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline and our Class A common stock to be less liquid. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.
Our stock price could be extremely volatile and may decline substantially from the public offering price. As a result, you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid for them.
The market price of our Class A common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. Volatility in the market price of our Class A common stock, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, may prevent a holder of our Class A common stock from being able to sell their shares at or above the price you paid for your shares and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our Class A common stock. Holders of our Class A common stock may experience a decrease, which could be substantial, in the value of their stock, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects, and a holder of our Class A common stock could lose part or all of their investment. The price of our Class A common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors, including those described elsewhere in this prospectus and others such as:
our ability to generate revenue sufficient to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow;
competition in our industry and our ability to compete effectively;
our dependence on non-exclusive distribution partners to market our products and services;
our ability to keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry and provide new products and services;
liability and reputation damage from unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services;
technical, operational and regulatory risks related to our information technology systems and third-party providers’ systems;
reliance on third parties for significant services;
exposure to economic conditions and political risks affecting consumer and commercial spending, including the use of credit cards;
our ability to increase our existing vertical markets, expand into new vertical markets and execute our growth strategy;
our ability to successfully identify acquisition targets and, thereafter to complete and effectively integrate those acquisitions into our services;
potential degradation of the quality of our products, services and support;
our ability to retain clients, many of which are SMBs, which can be difficult and costly to retain;
our ability to successfully manage our intellectual property;
our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop key personnel and qualified employees;
risks related to laws, regulations and industry standards;
our indebtedness and potential increases in our indebtedness;
operating and financial restrictions imposed by our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility; and
the other factors described in “Risk Factors.”
In response to any one or more of these events, the market price of shares of our Class A common stock could decrease significantly. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, and could also require us to make substantial payments to satisfy judgments or to settle litigation.

46



Taking advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” (as defined in the JOBS Act). An emerging growth company may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. We have chosen to take advantage of each of these exemptions. The JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when an accounting standard is issued or revised, and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make it difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used to compare our financial statements with the financial statements of a public company that is not an emerging growth company, or the financial statements of an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period. We could be an emerging growth company until the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our IPO. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive because we elected to rely on these exemptions, or if taking advantage of these exemptions will result in less active trading or more volatility in the price of our Class A common stock.

47



CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus includes statements that express our opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements.” All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus may be forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “pro forma,” “continues,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “seeks,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will,” “would” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements we make regarding the outlook for our future business and financial performance, such as those contained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference into this prospectus from our 2018 10-K and our Quarterly Report.
By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. We believe that these risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus, which include, but are not limited to, the following:
our ability to generate revenues sufficient to maintain profitability and positive cash flow;
competition in our industry and our ability to compete effectively;
our dependence on non-exclusive distribution partners to market our products and services;
our ability to keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry and provide new products and services;
liability and reputation damage from unauthorized disclosure, destruction or modification of data or disruption of our services;
technical, operational and regulatory risks related to our information technology systems and third-party providers’ systems;
reliance on third parties for significant services;
exposure to economic conditions and political risks affecting consumer and commercial spending, including the use of credit cards;
our ability to increase our existing vertical markets, expand into new vertical markets and execute our growth strategy;
our ability to successfully identify acquisition targets and thereafter to complete and effectively integrate those acquisitions into our services;
potential degradation of the quality of our products, services and support;
our ability to retain clients, many of which are SMBs, which can be difficult and costly to retain;
our ability to successfully manage our intellectual property;
our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop key personnel and qualified employees;
risks related to laws, regulations and industry standards;
our indebtedness and potential increases in our indebtedness;
operating and financial restrictions imposed by our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility; and
the other factors described in “Risk Factors” contained elsewhere in and incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a further description of these and other factors.
Those factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read with the other cautionary statements in this prospectus. Although we base these forward-looking statements on assumptions that we believe are reasonable when made, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry developments may differ materially from statements made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. In light of these risks and uncertainties, we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement that we make in this prospectus speaks only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or to publicly announce the results of any revision to any of those statements to reflect future events or developments, except as required by applicable law. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data.

48



USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately $97.1 million, or approximately $111.6 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions but before offering expenses.
We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to purchase (1) 1,000,000 Common Units directly from i3 Verticals, LLC, and (2) 3,491,763 Common Units (or 4,165,527 Common Units if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) from certain Continuing Equity Owners, in each case at a price per Common Unit equal to the price per share paid by the underwriters for shares of our Class A common stock in this offering. i3 Verticals, LLC will receive an estimated $20.9 million in net proceeds from the sale of Common Units to i3 Verticals, Inc., after deducting estimated offering expenses of $0.7 million. i3 Verticals, LLC intends to use all the net proceeds it receives to repay indebtedness outstanding under the 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility.
As of May 31, 2019, we owed $165.5 million under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility. Our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility matures on May 9, 2024. As of May 31, 2019, the interest rate on the borrowings outstanding under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility was 5.0% per annum. We entered into our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility on May 9, 2019 and used the proceeds to repay in full our existing senior secured credit facility.

49



DIVIDEND POLICY
We currently anticipate that we will retain all available funds for use in the operation and expansion of our business and to repay indebtedness, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. To the extent that we elect to pay dividends in the future, Class B common stock will not be entitled to any dividend payments. Additionally, our ability to pay any cash dividends on our Class A common stock is limited by restrictions on the ability of i3 Verticals, LLC and our other subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions under the terms of our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility. Our ability to pay dividends may also be restricted by the terms of any future credit agreement or any future debt or preferred equity securities of us or our subsidiaries.
Accordingly, you may need to sell your shares of our Class A common stock to realize a return on your investment, and you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock—We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future.”
We are a holding company and our principal asset is the Common Units in i3 Verticals, LLC we hold. If we decide to pay a dividend in the future, we would need to cause i3 Verticals, LLC to make distributions to us in an amount sufficient to cover such dividend. If i3 Verticals, LLC makes such distributions to us, the other holders of Common Units will be entitled to receive pro rata distributions. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure and Our Company—We are a holding company with no operations of our own, and our principal asset is our controlling membership interest in i3 Verticals, LLC. Accordingly, we depend on distributions from i3 Verticals, LLC to pay our taxes and other expenses.”

50



CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth the cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of March 31, 2019 of:
i3 Verticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries on an actual basis; and
i3 Verticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Pace Acquisition and the sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering at a public offering price of $22.75, with the net proceeds we receive used to purchase (1) 1,000,000 Common Units directly from i3 Verticals, LLC and (2) 3,491,763 Common Units and an equivalent number of Class B common stock (which shares will then be canceled) from certain of the Continuing Equity Owners.
The table below assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock.
This table should be read in conjunction with the sections entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information” included elsewhere in this prospectus, as well as the sections titled “Selected Financial Data,” "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our 2018 10-K and the sections titled “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Quarterly Report.
 
As of March 31, 2019
 
Actual
 
Pro Forma
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,393

 
$

Debt, including current portion
 
 
 
2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility
76,250

 
108,859

Debt issuance costs
(1,009
)
 
(1,009
)
Total long-term debt, including current portion(1)
75,241

 
107,850

Total stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
 
 
 
Preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 10,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares issued and outstanding on an actual and as adjusted basis

 

Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 150,000,000 shares authorized; 9,192,030 shares issued and outstanding, actual, and 13,683,793 shares issued and outstanding, on a pro forma basis
1

 
1

Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 40,000,000 shares authorized; 17,112,164 shares issued and outstanding, actual, and 13,620,401 shares issued and outstanding, on a pro forma basis
2

 
2

Additional paid-in capital
41,284

 
65,596

Accumulated (deficit) earnings
(188
)
 
4,436

Total stockholders equity
41,099

 
70,035

Non-controlling interest(2)
73,636

 
54,307

Total capitalization
$
189,976

 
$
232,192

_____________________
(1)
As of March 31, 2019, we had $66.3 million of availability under our 2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility. On May 9, 2019, the Company replaced its existing 2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility with the 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility. The 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility consists of a $300.0 million revolving line of credit, together with an option to increase the revolving line of credit and/or obtain incremental term loans in an additional principal amount of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate (subject to the receipt of additional commitments for any such incremental loan amounts). As of May 31, 2019, we owed $165.5 million under our 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility.
(2)
Represents the portions of i3 Verticals, LLC not owned by us, which represents 65.1% of i3 Verticals, LLC's outstanding Common Units prior to this offering and 49.9% following this offering.

51



UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
We have derived the unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations for the year ended September 30, 2018 set forth below by the application of pro forma adjustments to the audited consolidated financial statements of i3 Verticals, Inc. and subsidiaries included in our 2018 10-K and incorporated by reference herein. We have derived the unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statement of operations for the six months ended March 31, 2019 and the unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2019 set forth below by the application of pro forma adjustments to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of i3 Verticals, Inc. and subsidiaries included in our Quarterly Report and incorporated by reference herein.
The unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations for the year ended September 30, 2018 and for the six months ended March 31, 2019, and the unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2019, present our unaudited pro forma consolidated results of operations and financial position to give pro forma effect to the Reorganization Transactions, the IPO, the Pace Acquisition, the sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering (excluding shares issuable upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares), and the application of the net proceeds by us and i3 Verticals, LLC from this offering and the other transactions described elsewhere in this section, as if all such transactions had been completed as of October 1, 2017 with respect to the unaudited pro forma consolidated statements of operations, and as of March 31, 2019, with respect to the unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet. The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial statements reflect pro forma adjustments that are described in the accompanying notes and are based on available information and certain assumptions we believe are reasonable, but are subject to change. The adjustments in the unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial statements are to give effect to pro forma events that are (i) directly attributable to the items described below, (ii) factually supportable and (iii) expected to have a continuing impact on the Company’s consolidated results. We have made, in our opinion, all adjustments that are necessary to present fairly the pro forma financial information.
The pro forma adjustments principally give effect to the following items:
the Reorganization Transactions and IPO;
the Pace Acquisition;
this offering (based on a public offering price of $22.75 per share) and our payment of fees and expenses related to this offering and the use of a portion of the proceeds by i3 Verticals, LLC (from the sale of Common Units to us using the proceeds of this offering) to repay approximately $20.9 million of the indebtedness outstanding under the 2019 Senior Secured Credit Facility as described under “Use of Proceeds” (for the purposes of the unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information we have assumed the proceeds of this offering repaid indebtedness outstanding under the 2017 Senior Secured Credit Facility which was in effect during the periods presented); and
the recording of a deferred tax asset as a result of the increase in tax basis that is expected to result from the purchase by us of an aggregate of 3,491,763 Common Units held by the Continuing Equity Owners and the liability that is expected to be incurred as a result under the Tax Receivable Agreement that requires us to pay 85% of such benefits to the Continuing Equity Owners selling in this offering.
The unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial information and related notes related to the Pace Acquisition were prepared using the purchase method of accounting with i3 Verticals as the acquiring entity. Accordingly, the total consideration transferred by i3 Verticals to complete the Pace Acquisition will be allocated to assets and liabilities based upon their estimated fair values as of the date of completion of the Pace Acquisition. The allocation is dependent upon certain preliminary valuations utilized to allocate the total consideration transferred and is based on the actual net tangible and intangible assets of Pace which existed as of May 31, 2019, the date of the acquisition. Accordingly, the pro forma purchase price adjustments are preliminary, subject to further adjustments as additional information becomes available and as additional analysis is performed. Such further adjustments could be material. The pro forma purchase price adjustments have been made solely for the purpose of providing the unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial information presented below. Increases or decreases in the fair value of relevant amounts of assets acquired and liabilities assumed will result in adjustments to the historical balance sheet and/or statement of operations. There can be no assurances that the final determination will not result in material changes.

52



The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information presented assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares.
The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial statements reflect the acquisition of the equity interests in i3 Verticals, LLC and do not reflect a change in the recorded book basis of i3 Verticals, LLC, because those transactions are between entities under common control.
The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information is presented for informational purposes only and should not be considered indicative of actual results of operations that would have been achieved had this offering actually occurred on the dates indicated, and does not purport to be indicative of statements of financial condition data or results of operations as of any future date or for any future period. You should read our unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information and the accompanying notes in conjunction with all of the historical financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference and the financial and other information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference, including information contained in “Risk Factors,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Capitalization,” “Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus, and “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our 2018 10-K and Quarterly Report and incorporated by reference herein.

53

i3 Verticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet
As of March 31, 2019
(In thousands, except share data)

 
Historical i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
Historical Pace Payment Systems, Inc. (a)
 
Business Combination Adjustments (b)
 
As Adjusted Before Offering
 
Offering Adjustments
 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals, Inc.
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,393

 
$
184

 
$
(1,577
)
(b1)
$

 
$

(f)(g)
$

Accounts receivable, net
11,703

 
526

 

 
12,229

 

 
12,229

Settlement assets
439

 

 

 
439

 

 
439

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
3,246

 
450

 

 
3,696

 

 
3,696

Total current assets
16,781

 
1,160

 
(1,577
)
 
16,364

 

 
16,364

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net
3,055

 
157

 

 
3,212

 

 
3,212

Restricted cash
666

 

 

 
666

 

 
666

Capitalized software, net
7,041

 
330

 

 
7,371

 

 
7,371

Goodwill
104,651

 
15,675

 
25,209

(b2)
145,535

 

 
145,535

Intangible assets, net
82,661

 

 
18,700

(b3)
101,361

 

 
101,361

Deferred income taxes
1,932

 

 

 
1,932

 
21,913

(c)
23,845

Other assets
1,712

 

 

 
1,712

 

 
1,712

Total assets
$
218,499

 
$
17,322

 
$
42,332

 
$
278,153

 
$
21,913

 
$
300,066


54

i3 Verticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet (Continued)
As of March 31, 2019
(In thousands, except share data)


 
Historical i3 Verticals, Inc.
 
Historical Pace Payment Systems, Inc. (a)
 
Business Combination Adjustments (b)
 
As Adjusted Before Offering
 
Offering Adjustments
 
Pro Forma i3 Verticals, Inc.
Liabilities and equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
3,359

 
$
758

 
$

 
$
4,117

 
$

 
$
4,117

Current portion of long-term debt
5,000

 
600

 
(600
)
(b4)
5,000

 

 
5,000

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
15,588

 
2,053

 

 
17,641

 
35

(c)
17,676

Settlement obligations
439

 

 

 
439

 

 
439

Deferred revenue
4,413

 

 

 
4,413

 

 
4,413

Total current liabilities
28,799

 
3,411

 
(600
)
 
31,610

 
35

 
31,645

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long-term debt, less current portion and debt issuance costs, net
70,241

 
37,953

 
15,526

(b5)
123,720

 
(20,870
)
(g)
102,850

Tax receivable agreement obligations
1,420

 

 

 
1,420

 
18,661

(c)
20,081

Other long-term liabilities
3,304

 

 
17,844

(b6)
21,148

 

 
21,148

Total liabilities
103,764

 
41,364

 
32,770

 
177,898

 
(2,174
)
 
175,724

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders' equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Redeemable preferred stock, Series A, $0.001 par value (including accrued dividends of $9,154,952), 1,228,500 shares authorized and issued; 1,213,435 shares outstanding

 
21,440

 
(21,440
)
(b7)

 

 

Preferred stock, Series B, $0.001 par value, 300,000 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

 
2,000

 
(2,000
)
(b8)

 

 

Preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 10,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2019

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 2,000,000 shares authorized; 178,895 shares issued and outstanding; 198,507 restricted shares issued and 196,172 shares outstanding

 

 

(b9)

 

 

Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 150,000,000 shares authorized; 9,192,030 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2019, actual, and 13,692,592 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma
1

 

 

(b10)
1

 

(b)(d)
1

Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 40,000,000 shares authorized; 17,112,164 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2019, actual, and 13,620,401 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma
2

 

 

 
2

 

(d)
2

Additional paid-in-capital
41,284

 
2

 
223

(b11)
41,509

 
24,087

(a)(d)
65,596

Accumulated (deficit) earnings
(188
)
 
(47,333
)
 
32,628

(b12)
(14,893
)
 
19,329

(e)
4,436

Treasury stock, 15,065 preferred shares, 2,335 common shares, at cost

 
(151
)
 
151

(b13)

 

 

Total Stockholders' equity (deficit)
41,099

 
(24,042
)
 
9,562

 
26,619

 
43,416

 
70,035

Non-controlling interest
73,636

 

 

 
73,636

 
(19,329
)
(e)
54,307

Total equity (deficit)
114,735

 
(24,042
)
 
9,562

 
100,255

 
24,087

 
124,342

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity (deficit)
$
218,499

 
$
17,322

 
$
42,332

 
$
278,153

 
$
21,913

 
$
300,066

See accompanying Notes to the Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet

55


i3 Verticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet

(a)
On May 31, 2019, i3-SDCR, Inc., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired all of the stock of Pace. Total preliminary estimated purchase consideration included $52.5 million in cash consideration paid at closing, funded by revolving line of credit proceeds, and $12.6 million of contingent consideration as estimated on a preliminary basis and $0.2 million of restricted shares of Class A common stock in i3 Verticals.
Certain provisions in the merger agreement provide for contingent consideration of up to $20.0 million, to be paid based upon achievement of specified financial performance targets, as defined in the purchase agreement, through December 2021. We determined the preliminary estimated acquisition date fair value of the liability for the contingent consideration based on a forecast of financial performance. We plan to complete a Monte Carlo simulation to establish a final acquisition date estimated fair value of the liability for the contingent consideration. In each subsequent reporting period we will reassess the current estimates of performance relative to the targets and adjust the contingent liability to its fair value through earnings.
We are still evaluating the allocation of the preliminary estimated purchase consideration. The pro forma purchase price adjustments are preliminary, subject to further adjustments as additional information becomes available and as additional analysis is performed. Such further adjustments could be material.
The goodwill associated with the acquisition is not deductible for tax purposes.
The acquired merchant relationships intangible asset has a preliminary estimated amortization period of 15 years. The non-compete agreement and trade name have preliminary estimated amortization periods of 3 and 5 years, respectively. The weighted-average preliminary estimated amortization period for all intangibles is 14 years.
Acquisition-related costs for Pace to date were $1.6 million, none of which were included in i3 Verticals' historical financial statements or Pace's historical financial statements. The costs have been reflected as a pro forma adjustment in the unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated balance sheet.
(b)
In accordance with the rules of Article 11 of Regulation S-X, the following adjustments were made for the Pace Acquisition (amounts in thousands):
(b1)
Adjustments to cash and cash equivalents: